Classification as a Factor in the Scientific Evolution of Entrepreneurship


  • Minet Schindehutte Miami University
  • Michael H. Morris Miami University
  • Donald F. Kuratko Ball State University


Taxonomy, or the establishment of meaningful classification schemes, is examined as a major stage in the development of disciplines. The role of classification in the advancement of entrepreneurship  is  established  Approaches  to  developing  classification  schemes,  and criteria for  assessing  them,  are  discussed.  Key  classification  schemes  in five  different   areas within entrepreneurship are evaluated Shortcomings are noted, and  priorities  are established for taxonomic development. A framework  is  proposed  for  developing  an integrative classification for  the discipline  of entrepreneurship.


Adizes, I. ( I 978). Organizational passages: Diagnosing and treating l ifecycle problems of organizations. Organ izational Dynam ics, 5(Summer), 2-25.

Adizes, I. ( I 999). Managing corporate lifecycles. Englewood Cl iffs, NJ: Prentice Hal l.

Amit, R., Glosten, L., & M uller, E. (1993). Challenges to theory development in entrepreneurial research. Journal of Management Studies, 30(5), 8I 5-834.

Bannister, R., & Monsma, C. ( 1 980). Classification of concepts in consumer education, Ypsilanti: MI: Michigan Consumer Education Center.

Bartels, R. (1970). Marketin g theory and metatheory, Homewood, I L: Richard D. Irwin. Baumol, W. J. ( I 996). Entrepreneurship, management and the structure of profits, Cam bridge, MA: MIT Press.

Blalock, H. M. ( I 969). Theory construction: From verbal to mathematical formulations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) ( 1 956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. New York: D. McKay Company.

Boaz-Allen & Hamilton ( I 979). Product development: New approaches in the I 980's, New York: Boaz-Alen and Hamilton.

Braden, P. L. ( I 977). Technological entrepreneurship, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Bull, I., & Thomas, H. (1993). A perspective on theory building in entrepreneurship. Journal gf Business Venturing, 8(3), I 81-182.

Bunge, M. (1967). Scientific research: The search for a system (Vol. I ). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Carland J., & Carland, J. (I998). Small business management: Tools for success. Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing Co.

Carland, J. W., Hoy, F., Bou lton, W. R., & Carland, J. A. ( I 984). entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualization. Management Review, I I (April), 356-369. Differentiating Academy ofChurchill, N., & Lewis V. (1983). The five stages of small business growth. Harvard Business Review, 52(May-June), 30-40.

Cooper, A., & Dunkelberg, W. (1981 ). A new look at business entry. In K.Vesper, (Ed.), Frontiers of Entrepreneursh ip Research, (16-24). Wellesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.

Covin, J., Slevin, D., Heeley, M. (2000). Pioneers and followers: Competitive tactics, environment, and firm growth. Journal of Business Venturing, I 5(2), 175-210.

Crawford; C., & Di Benedetto, C. (2000). New products management. Burr Ridge, Illinois: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Cunningham, J., & Lischeron, J. (1991 ). Defining entrepeneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(January), 45-61.

Dickinson, J. (1986). Science and scientific researchers in modem society, France: Unesco.

Doty, D., & Glick, W. (1994.) Typologies as a unique form of theory build ing: Toward im proving understanding and modeling. Academy of Management Review, 19(2), 230- 251.

Dunkelberg W., & Cooper, A. (1982). Entrepmeurial typologies: An em pirical study. In

K.Vesper, (Ed.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (pp. 1-15). Wellesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.

Filley, A., & Aldag, R. (1978). Characteristics and measurement of an organization typology. Academy of Management Journal, 21(4) 578-591.

Flynn, M. (1984). Microcomputer system design. Dubl in: Springer-Verlag.

Greiner, L. (1971), Evolution and revolution as organ izations grow. Harvard Business Review, 49(July-August), 37-46.

Hebert, R., & Link, A. ( 1998). The entrepreneur: Mainstream views & radical critiq ues. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, Inc.

Hisrich, R., & Peters, M. (1998). Entrepreneurship (4"' ed.). Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Hunt, S. (1991). Modem marketing theory: Critical issues in the philosophy of marketing science. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co.

Kao, J. (1991 ). The entrepreneur. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hal l. Katz, J. (1999). Entrepreneurship infrastructure.

Keis de Vries, M. ( 1977). The entrepreneurial personality: A person at the crossroads. Journal of Management Studies, 14 (I ), 34-57.

Kuratko, D., & Hornsby, J. (1996). Developing entrepreneurial leadership in contem porary organizations. Journal of Management Systems, 8(1), 17-27.

Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Kunkel, S. (1996). Toward a typology of entrepreneurial activities. Working Paper. University of San Diego.

Lafuente, A., & Salas, V. ( 1989). Types of entrepreneurs and firms: The case of new Spanish firms. Strategic Management Journal, 1(1), 17-30.

McKelvey, B. (1982). Organizational systematics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

MacMillan, LC., & Katz, J. (1992). Idiosyncratic milieus of entrepreneurship research: The need for comprehensive theories. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(1 ): 1-8.

Maidique, M., & Patch, P. (1978). Corporate strategy and technological policy. In M. L. Tushman and W. L. Moore (Eds.), Readings in the management of innovation (pp. 236-248). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Marquis, D. (1969). The anatomy of successful innovations. In Managing advancing technology: Vol. I. (pp. 35-48). New York: American Management Association.

Miner, J. (1996). The four routes to entrepreneurial success. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Miner, J. (2000). Testing a psychological typology of entrepreneurship using business

founders. Journal of Appl ied Behavioral Science, 36(1), 43-70.

Olm, K., & Eddy, G. (1985). Entrepreneurship and venture management, Columbus: Charles Merrell Publishing.

Ratnatunga, J., & Romano, C. (1997). A citation classics analysis of articles in contemporary small enterprise research. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(2), 197-212.

Roberts, E. (1991). Entrepreneurs in high technology: Lessons from MIT and beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rogers, E. (1983). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.

Ronstadt, R. (1984). Entrepreneurship: Text, cases and notes. Dover, MA: Lord Publishing.

Schendel, D., & Hofer, C. (1979). Strategic management. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice­ Hall.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneursh ip as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25 ( I ), 21 7-226.

Smith, N. (1967). The entrepreneur and h is firm: The relationship between type of man and type of com pany. East Lansing: Michigan State Un iversity.

Stevenson, H., Robens, M., Grousbeck, H., & Bhide, A. ( 1 999). New business ventures and the entrepreneur, (4'' ed.). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.

Stewan, W., Watson, W., Carland, J. C., & Carland, J. W. (1999). A Proclivity for entrepreneurshi p: A comparison of entrepreneurs, small business owners and corporate managers. Journal of Business Venturing, 14(2), 189-2 I 4.

Tidd, J., Bessant, J. & Pavitt, K. (1997). Managing innovation. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Tim mons, J. ( 1 999). New venture creation (5th ed.). Burr Ridge, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin.

Timmons J. (1999). The entrepreneurial m i nd. Andover, Massachusetts: Brick House Publish ing.

Tropman, J., & Morn ingstar, G. (1989). Entrepreneurial systems for the I 990's. Westpon, CT: Quorum Books.

Tyebjee, T., Bruno, A., & Mcintyre, S. (1983). Growing ventures can anticipate marketing stages. Harvard Business Review, 52(January-February), 62-66.

U.S. Small Business Administration (1996). The state of small business: A repon of the president, Repon 0735-1437. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, I O­ II.

Vesper, K., Ganner, W., & Mitchell, T. (1989). A taxonomy of new business ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 4(3), 175-187.

Vesper, K. (1990). New venture stmtegies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Vesper K., & Ganner, W. ( 1 999). University entrepreneursh ip programs-1 999. Los Angeles: Lloyd Grief Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Un iversity of Southern California.

Vesper, K., & Ganner, W. (1997). Measuring progress in entrepreneurship education. Journal of Business Venturing, 1 2(5), 403-421.

Webster, F. ( 1 977). Entrepreneurs and ventures: An attempt at classificat ion and clarification. Academy of Management Review, 3(1), 54-61.

Wetzel, W. (1979). The cost and availabil ity of credit and risk capital in New England. In J.

· A. Timmons & D. E. Gumpert (Eds.). A region's struggling savior: Small business in New England. Wa ltham, MA: Small Business Foundation of America.

Woo, C., Cooper, A., & Dunkelberg, W. ( 1 991 ). The development and interpretation of entrepreneurial typologies. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(2), 93-1 14.







How to Cite

Classification as a Factor in the Scientific Evolution of Entrepreneurship. (2000). Journal of Small Business Strategy (archive Only), 11(2), 1-20.