Small and Medium-sized Firms' First Interaction with Government: An Exploratory Study
It is well known that, by either incentives or constraints, government has a substantial impact on business (Marcus. Kaufman. & Beam. 1987; Buchholtz. 1988; Scarborough & Zimmerer, 1993; Preston, 1990; Epstein, 1980). Over time, this impact has increased to where the political success of firm is considered by some to be vital to marketplace success (Marcus et al., 1987). As a result, firms often found that they needed to become involved in the public policy process if they were to gain influence with policymakers. As Irving Shapiro, former CEO of Dupont and former chairman of the Business Roundtable, put it, "..you have zero chance of scoring points unless you get into the game" (1980,p. 30). Historically, large firms were the first to get 'into the game,' often by investing in a Washington office, hiring one or more representatives to monitor issue areas of primary concern, and engaging a law or public relations firm to pursue company interests with relevant bureaucrats (Levitan & Cooper, 1984).
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