Examining the Impact of Small Business Institute Participation on Entrepreneurial Attitudes
AbstractStudents enrolled in the Small Business Institute® (SBI) at six universities completed the Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation survey. A pre-test was administered during the first week of the semester followed by a post-test at the conclusion of the semester to determine if participation in the course affected students' entrepreneurial attitudes. Past research suggests that an "entrepreneurial perspective" can be developed in individuals, and that a primary focus of entrepreneurship education is the development of positive attitudes. Results strongly supported the notion that completion of the SBI course had a major impact on students' entrepreneurial attitudes. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect was found such that women's attitudes were significantly strengthened by completing the course.
Acs, Z., Tarpley, F. A. & Phillips, B. D. (1998). The American Evolution: The Role and Impact of Small Firms, Washington, DC: SBA Office of Advocacy, Retrieved 1 May 2007, from http://www.sba.gov/advo/stats/econ_arch/evol_pap.html.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior & Decision Processes, 50: 179211.
Bateman, TS. & Grant, J.M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(2): 103118.
Boden, R. & Nucci, A. (2000). On the survival prospects of men's and women's new business ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(4): 347362.
Bonner, G. and Wanke, M. (2001), Attitudes and Attitude Change. Psychology Press, Florence, KY.
Bosma, N. & Harding, R. (2006), Global entrepreneurship monitor 2006 results report, Wellesley, MA: The Center for Women's Leadership at Babson College.
Brindley, C (2005). Barriers to women achieving their entrepreneurial potential: Women and risk. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 11(2): 144161.
Busenitz, L. W. (1999). Entrepreneurial risk and strategic decision-making: It's a matter of perspective. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35(3): 325340.
Carlson, S. D. (1985). Consistency of attitude components: A new approach for an old problem. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (09B): 3261.
Carter, S. (2000). Improving the numbers and performance of women-owned businesses: Some implications for training and advisory services. Education and Training, 42 (4-5): 326-334.
Carter, N.W, Gartner, W.B., Shaver, K.G. and Gatewood, EJ. (2003). The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1): 1339.
Carter, N. M., Williams, M. and Reynolds, P. D. (1997). Discontinuance among new firms in retail: The influence of initial resources, strategy, and gender. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(2): 125145.
Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4): 295316.
Chrisman, J. J. (1999). The influence of outsider-generated knowledge resources on venture creation. Journal of Small Business Management, 37(4): 4259.
Chrisman, J. J. & McMullan, W. E. (2000). A preliminary assessment of outsider assistance as a knowledge resource: The longer-term impact of new venture counseling. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 24(3): 3754.
Collins, C.J., Hanges, P., & Locke, E.A. (2004). The relationship of need for achievement to entrepreneurship: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 17(1): 95117.
Davidsson, P. (1995). Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions, Paper presented at the RENT IX Workshop in Entrepreneurship Research, Piacenza, Italy, November 23-24.
Douglas, E. J. & Shepherd, D. A. (2002). Self-employment as a career choice: Attitudes, entrepreneurial intentions, and utility maximization. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 26(3): 8190.
Ede, F.O., Panigrahi, B., & Calcich, S.E. (1998). African American students' attitudes toward entrepreneurship education. Journal of Education for Business, 73(5): 291297.
Entrepreneur. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved 15 November 2007, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entrepreneur.
Erickson, T. (2002). Entrepreneurial capital: The emerging venture's most important asset and competitive advantage. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3): 275290.
Farmer, H.S. (1997). Gender differences in career development. In: Farmer, H.S. (Ed.) Diversity and Women's Career Development (127-160). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Florin, J., Karri, R., & Rossiter, N. (2007). Fostering entrepreneurial drive in business education: An attitudinal approach. Journal of Management Education, 31(1): 1742.
Frazier, B. J. 8c Niehm, L. S. (2006). Predicting the entrepreneurial intentions of non-business majors: A preliminary investigation. Paper presented at the USASBE/SBI Conference, Tucson, AZ, January 1417.
Gartner, W B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon for new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10(4): 696706.
Gasse, Y. (1985). A strategy for the promotion and identification of potential entrepreneurs at the secondary school level. In: J. A. Hornaday, B. Shils, J. A. Timmons and K. H. Vesper (Eds.) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship (538-559), Wellesley, MA: Babson College.
Gatewood, E. J. & Shaver, K. G. (1991). Expectancies for success and attributes for failure: Toward a theory of entrepreneurial persistence. Paper presented at the Academy of Management, Miami, FL.
Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., Powers, J. B., & Gartner, W B. (2002). Entrepreneurial expectancy, task effort, and performance. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 27(2): 187206.
Gibson, S. 8c Harris, M. (in press). An Examination of the Entrepreneurial Attitudes of U.S. versus Chinese Students. Southern Journal of Entrepreneurship, 1.
Grubb, W.L., Harris, M.L., & MacKenzie, WI. (2006). Business students' perceptions of employment in small and medium-sized enterprises versus multinational corporations: Investigating the moderating effect of academic major, gender, and personality. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 17(2): 2735.
Hatten, T S. & Ruhland, S. K. (1995). Student attitude towards entrepreneurship as affected by participation in an SBI program. Journal of Education for Business, 70 (4), 224-228.
Hansemark, O.C. (2003). Need for achievement, locus of control and the prediction of business start-ups: A longitudinal study. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24 (3), 301-319.
Heilman, M.E. & Chen, JJ. (2003). Entrepreneurship as a solution: The allure of self-employment for women and minorities. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2): 347364.
Hisrich, R. D. & Brush, C G. (1987). Women entrepreneurs: A longitudinal study. In: R.
Ronstadt, J. A. Hornaday, R. Peterson and K. H. Vesper (Eds.) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship (187-189), Wellesley, MA: Babson College.
Kent, C. A. (1990). Introduction: Educating the heffalump. In: C. A. Kent (Ed.) Entrepreneurship Education: Current Developments, Future Directions (127), New York: Quorum Books.
Kourilsky, MX. & Esfandiari, M. (1997). Entrepreneurship education and lower socioeconomic black youth: An empirical investigation. The Urban Review, 29(3): 205215.
Kourilsky, M.L. & Walstad, W. B. (1998). Entrepreneurship and female youth: Knowledge, attitudes, gender differences, and educational practices. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(1): 7788.
Krueger, N. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(1): 521.
Krueger, N. and Brazeal, D. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(3): 9194.
Kuratko, D. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: Developments, trends, and challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29(5): 577597.
Li, J., Zhang, Y. & Matlay, H. (2003). Entrepreneurship education in China. Education + Training, 45(8/9): 495505.
MacRae, N. (2005). Women and work: A ten year retrospective. Work, 24(4): 331-339.
Matlay, H. (2005). Researching entrepreneurship and education: What is entrepreneurship and does it matter? Education + Training, 47(8/9): 665677.
McMullen, J.S., & Shepherd, D.A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31(1): 132152.
Mitra, J. & Matlay, H. (2004). Entrepreneurial and vocational education and training: Lessons from eastern and central Europe. Industry and Higher Education, 18(1): 5369.
McClelland, D. C. (1961), The achieving society. Van Nostrand, New York.
Menzies, T. V, Diochon, M., & Gasse, Y. (2004). Examining venture-related myths concerning women entrepreneurs. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 9(2): 89107.
Minniti, M., Allen, I. E., & Langowitz, N. (2005). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2005 report on women and entrepreneurship. Babson Park, MA: The Center for Women's Leadership at Babson College.
Minniti, M. & Bygrave, W. (2003). US global entrepreneurship monitor: 2003 executive report, Retrieved 1 May 2007 from http://www.kaufrman.org/pdf/ gem 2003_us_report.pdf.
Moy, J. W. & Lee, S. M. (2002). The career choice of business graduates: SMEs or MNCs? Career Development International, 7(6/7): 339347.
Perry, S. C. (2002). A comparison of failed and non-failed small businesses in the United States: Do men and women use different planning and decision making strategies. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(4),: 415428.
Peterman, N. E. & Kennedy, J. (2003). Enterprise education: Influencing students' perception of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 28(2): 129144.
Politis, D. (2005). The process of entrepreneurial learning: A conceptual framework. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29(4): 399424.
Reitan, B. (1996). Entrpreneurial intentions: A combined models approach, Paper presented at the 9th Nordic Small Business Research Conference, Lillehammer, Norway, May 29-31.
Robb, A. M. (2002). Entrepreneurial performance by women and minorities: The case for new firms. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(4): 383397.
Robinson, P. B. (1987). Prediction of entrepreneurship based on attitude consistency model. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48: 2807B.
Robinson, P. B., Stimpson, D. V, Huefher, J. C, & Hunt, H. K. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 15(4): 1331.
Shapero, A. and Sokol, L. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In: C A. Kent, D. L.
Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (7290), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Small Business Administration (2006, July), Small business statistics. Retrieved 1 May 2007 from http://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbastats.ht ml.
Steward, W.H., Watson, WE., Carland, J.C, & Carland, J.W. (1999). A proclivity for entrepreneurship: A comparison of entrepreneurs, small business owners, and corporate managers. Journal of Business Venturing, 14(2): 189214.
Thomas, P. (2001, February 27). Women entrepreneurs opt for equity ahead of growth. Wall Street Journal, B2.
Wortman, M. S. (1987). Entrepreneurship: An integrating typology and evaluation of the empirical research in the field. Journal of Management, 13(2): 259279.
Zimmer, T.W. & Scarborough, N.M (1998). Essentials of entrepreneurship and small business management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.