A Cross-National Investigation of First-Generation, Second-Generation, and Third-Generation Family Businesses: A Four Country Anova Comparison


  • Matthew C. Sonfield Hofstra University
  • Robert N. Lussier Springfield College
  • Sanj Pfeifer University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer Osijek, Croatia
  • S. Manikutty Indian Institute of Management, India
  • Loic Maherault Ecole de Management, Lyon, France
  • Louis Verdier Ecole de Management, Lyon, France


This study compared first, second, and third-generation family businesses in the United States, Croatia, France, and India - countries with significant differences in cultures, economies, levels of entrepreneurial activity, and family business demographics. Contrary to much of the existing literature, the results indicate that owner-managers of all three generational categories of family businesses, in all four countries, generally shared the same managerial characteristics and practices. Implications for theory development and further research are presented.


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How to Cite

A Cross-National Investigation of First-Generation, Second-Generation, and Third-Generation Family Businesses: A Four Country Anova Comparison. (2005). Journal of Small Business Strategy (archive Only), 16(1), 9-26. https://libjournals.mtsu.edu/index.php/jsbs/article/view/34

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