Pre-Export Planning and Start-up Export Performance for Small Electronics Manufacturers


  • Philip D. Ogson University of Idaho
  • Newell Gough Boise State University
  • Donald W. Bokor Business Consultant


An increasing number of small businesses are seeking customers in foreign countries. At this time, however, our knowledge of small business successful export practices is limited. To increase our export understanding, it has been suggested that research should examine in more depth the relationship between export planning and performance.   Based on a sample of eighteen small firms in the electronics industry, weak support was found for the hypothesis that the level of formal export planning is positively related to export performance. Areas for future research and limitations of the study are also discussed.


Aaby, N. E., & Slater, S. F. (1989). Management influences on export performance: A review of the empirical literature 1978-88. International Marketing Review, 6(4), 7-26.

Agmon, T., & Drobnick, R. (1994). Small firms in global competition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Armstrong, J. S. (1982). The value of formal planning for strategic decisions. Strategic Management Journal, 3, 197-21 1.

Aurial, N. ( 1 993). " My wife knows best' A comparison of event dating accuracy between the wife, the husband, the couple, and the Belgium population register. Public Opinion Quarterly, 57, 1 65-190.

Ayal, I., & Raban, J. (1987). Export management structure and successful high technology innovation. I n P. J. Rosson & S. D. Reid ( Ed s.),Managing export entry and expansion (pp. 358-372). New York: Praeger.

Bijmolt, T. H. A., & Zwart, P. S. (1994). The impact of internal factors on the export success of Dutch smal l and medium-sized firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 32( 2 April), 69-83.

BiIkey, W. J. ( 1978). An attempted integration of the literature on the export behavior of firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 9 ( I Spring-Summer), 33-46.

Brasch, J. J .• & Lee, W. ( 1978). The adoption of export as an innovative strategy. Journal of International Business Studies, 9 ( I Spring-Summer), 85-93.

Bracker, J. S., Keats, B. W., & Pearson, J. N. (1988). Planning and financial performance among small firms in a growth i nd ustry. Strategic Management Journal, 9, 591-603.

Bresser, R. K., & Bishop, R. C. ( 1983). Dysfunctional effects of formal planning: Two theoretical explanations. Academy of Management Review, 8, 588-599.

Brockner, J., Grover, S., Reed, T. F., & DeWitt, R. L. (1992). Layoffs, job insecurity, and survivors' work effort: Evidence ofan inverted-u relat ionshi p. Academy of Managemert Journal, 35(2), 41 3-425.

Center for Business Development and Research. (1993). Idaho Manufacturing Directory 1993. Moscow, I D: University ofldaho.

Covin, J. G., & Slevi n, D. P. ( 1991). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16 (Fall), 7-25.

Department of International Development. (1994). Spokane, Washington area exporters directory. Spokane, WA: City of Spokane.

Fredrickson,J. W. ( 1 984). The comprehensiveness of strategic decision processes: Extension, observations, future directions. Academy of Management Journal, 27 (3), 445-466.

Gilmore, F. F. (1971). Formulating strategy in smaller companies. Harvard Business Review, 49, 71-81.

Gou illart, F. J., & Sturd ivant, F. D. (1994). Spend a day in the life of your customers. Harvard Business Review, 72 (I January-February), 1 16-125.

Hand, H. W., Sineath, P., & Howle, W. E. (1987). Small business concepts and their relationship to performance: A field study of retail service stations. Journal of Small Business Management, 25 (2 April), 55-63.

Howard G. S., & Dailey, P. R. ( 1979). Response-shift bias: A source of contamination of self­ report measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 46, 144-1 50.

Huff, A. S., & Reger, R. K. 1987. A review of strategic process research. Journal of Management, 13 (2), 21 1-236.

Idaho Department of Commerce. (1 993). Idaho international trade directory 1993-1994. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Commerce.

Idaho De partment of Commerce. (1 994). Idaho international trade directory 1994-1995. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Commerce.

Karnath, S., Rosson, P. J., Patton, D., & Brooks, M. (1987). Research on success in exporti ng. In P. J. Rosson & S. D. Reid (Eds.), Managing export entry and expansion (pp. 398- 421). New York: Praeger.

Karger, D., & Malik, Z. (1975). Long range planning and organizational performance. Long Range Planning, 8, 60-64.

Keats, B. W., & Bracker, J. S. (1988). Toward a theory of small firm performance: A conceptual model. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4 Spring), 41-58.

Lyles, M. A., Baird, I. S., Orris, J. B., & Kuratko, D. F. ( 1993). Formalized planning in small busi ness: Increasing strategic choices. Journal of Small Business Management, 31( 2), 38-50.

Macharzina, K., & Engelhard, J. (1991 ). Parad igm shift i n international business research: From partist and eclectic approaches to the GAINS parad igm. Management International Review, 3l(Special Issue), 23-43.

Madsen, T. K. (1987). Empirical export performance studies: A review of conceptualizatiora and find ings. Advances in International Marketing, 2, 177-198.

Miesenbock,K. J. (1988). Small busi nessesand exporting: A l iterature review. lnternationd Small Business Journal, 6( 2 January-March), 42-61.

Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mintzberg, H. (1990). The design school: Reconsidering the basic premises of strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 11(3), 1 71 -195.

Mintzberg, H. ( 1994). The fall and rise of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review, 72( I January-February), I 07-1 14.

Naumann, E., Shannon, P. ( 1992). What is customer-driven marketing? Business Horizons, (November-December), 44-52.

Parks, B., Olson, P. D., & Bokor, D. W. (1991). Don't mistake business plans for planning (It may be dangerous to your financial health). Journal of Small Business Strategy, 2(1 ), 1 5-24.

Pearce, J. A., Freeman, E. B., & Robinson, R. B. (1987). The tenuous link between formal strategic planning and financial performance. Academy of Management Review, 12(4), 658-675.

Pearce, J. A., Robbins, D. K., & Robinson, R. A. (1987). The impact of grand strategy and planning formal ity on financial performance. Strategic Management Journal, 8, 125- 134.

Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H., Jr. (1982). In search of excellence: lessons from America's best-run companies. New York: Harper & Row, Publ ishers.

Pettigrew, A. W. (1992). The character and significance of strategy process research. Strategic Management Journal, l 3(Winter), 5-16.

Robinson, R. B. (1982). The importance of "outsiders" in small firm strategic planning. Academy of Management Journal, 25(1 March), 80-93.

Robi nson , R. B., & Pearce, J. A. (1983). The impact of formalized strategic planning on financial performance in small organizations. Strategic Management Journal, 4, 197- 207.

Robi n son, R. B., & Pearce, J. A. (1984). Research thrusts in small firm strategic planning. Academy a/ Management Review. 9(1), 128-1 37.

Rhyne, L. C. (1986). Contrasting planning systems in high, medium, and low performance companies. Journal of Management Studies, 24, 363-385.

Schwenk, C. R., & Shrader, C. B. ( 1993). Effects of formal strategic planning on financial performance i n small fi rms: A meta-analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, I 7(3 Spring), 53-64.

Shrad er, C. B., Taylor, L., & Dalton, D. R. ( 1984). Strategic planni ng and organizational performance: A critical appraisal. Journal of Management, I 0(2), 149-1 71.

Shuman, J. C., Shaw, J. J., & Sussman, G. (1985). Strategic planni ng in smaller rapid growth companies. Long Range Planning, 18(6 ), 48-53.

Still, T. W. ( 1974). An exploratory investigation of strategic planning behavior in small buinesses. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.

Suzman, C. L., & Wortzel, L. H. ( 1 984). Technology profiles and export marketing strategies Journal of Business Research, I2, 183-194.

Van de Ven, A. H. (1992). Suggestions for studying strategy process: A research note. Strategic Management Journal, I J(Summer), 169-188.

Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organizations (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons (Trans.). New York: Free Press.







How to Cite

Pre-Export Planning and Start-up Export Performance for Small Electronics Manufacturers. (1996). Journal of Small Business Strategy (archive Only), 7(2), 1-16.