A Revised Conceptual Model of the Firm-Level Entrepreneurial Process

  • Patrick M. Kreiser Ohio University
  • Justin Davis Ohio University


Research suggests that existing conceptualizations of firm-level entrepreneurship may not be sufficient in fully explaining the construct (Brown, Davidsson, & Wiklund, 2001; Brush, Manolova, & Edelman, 2008). In particular, there is little consensus regarding the organizational attributes that underlie the entrepreneurial act. This study integrates and extends existing conceptualizations to form a new theoretical framework for studying the firm-level entrepreneurial process. It is argued that three attributes: innovativeness, proactiveness, and strategic renewal, are necessary preconditions for firms to be considered truly "entrepreneurial." The role that these three firm-level attributes play in generating important entrepreneurial outcomes is also considered.


Download data is not yet available.


Alvarez SA. (2007). Entrepreneurial rents and the theory of the firm. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(3):427-442.

Alvarez, S.A., & Barney, J.B. (2005). How do entrepreneurs organize firms under conditions of uncertainty? Journal of Management, 31(5): 776-793.

Alvarez, S.A., & Busenitz, L.W. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resourcebased theory. Journal of Management, 27: 755-775.

Anderson, P.J., Blatt, R., Christianson, M.K., Grant, A.M., Marquis, C., Neuman, E.J., Sonenshein, S., & Sutcliffe, K.M. (2006). Understanding Mechanisms in organizational research: Reflections from a collective journey. Journal of Management Inquiry, 15 (2): 102-113.

Barney, J.B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.

Brown, T.E., Davidsson, P., & Wiklund, J. (2001). An operationalization of Stevenson's conceptualization of entrepreneurship as opportunitybased firm behavior. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 953-968.

Brush, C.G., Manolova, T.S., & Edelman, L.F. (2008). Properties of emerging organizations: An empirical test. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(5): 547-566.

Burgelman, R.A. (1983). Corporate entrepreneurship and strategic management: Insights from a process study. Management Science, 29(12): 1349-1364.

Covin, J.G., Green, K.M., & Slevin, D.P. (2006). Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial orientation-sales growth rate relationships. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1): 57-81.

Covin, J.G., & Miles, M.P. (1999). Corporate entrepreneurship and the pursuit of competitive advantage. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23(3): 47-63.

Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (1988). The influence of organization structure on the utility of an entrepreneurial top management style. Journal of Management Studies, 25(3): 217-259.

Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10: 75-87.

Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (1991). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(1): 7-25.

Davidsson, P., Low, M.B., & Wright, M. (2001). Editor's introduction: Low and MacMillan ten years on: Achievements and future directions for entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4): 5-15.

Dess, G.G., Ireland, R.D., Zahra, S.A., Floyd, S.W., Janney, J.J., & Lane, P.J. (2003). Emerging issues in corporate entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29(3): 351-378.

Green, K.M., Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (2008). Exploring the relationship between strategic reactiveness and entrepreneurial orientation: The role of structure-style fit. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(3): 356-383.

Guth, W.D., & Ginsberg, A. (1990). Guest editors' introduction: Corporate entrepreneurship. Strategic Management Journal, 11: 5-15.

Hatch, N.W., & Dyer, J.H. (2004). Human capital and learning as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 25: 1155-1179.

Ireland, R.D., Hitt, M.A., & Sirmon, D.G. (2003). A model of strategic entrepreneurship: The construct and its dimensions. Journal of Management, 29(6): 963-989.

Ireland, R.D., Kuratko, D.F., & Covin, J.G. (2003). Antecedents, elements, and consequences of corporate entrepreneurship strategy. Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings.

Keh, H.T., Nguyen, T.T.M., & Ng, H.P. (2007). The effects of entrepreneurial orientation and marketing information on the performance of SMEs. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4): 592-611.

Knight, F.H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty, and profit. New York, NY: Kelly and Millman, Inc.

Kuratko, D.F., Hornsby, J.S., & Goldsby, M.G. (2004). Sustaining corporate entrepreneurship: Modeling perceived implementation and outcome comparisons at organizational and individual levels. International Journal of Entrepreneurship & Innovation, 5(2): 77-90.

Lumpkin, G.T., & Dess, G.G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 135-172.

Lumpkin, G.T., & Dess, G.G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance: The moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing, 16: 429-451.

Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science, 29(7): 770-791.

Palich, L., & Bagby, R.. (1995). Using cognitive theory to explain entrepreneurial risk-taking: Challenging conventional wisdom. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(6): 425-438.

Schollhammer, H. (1982). Internal corporate entrepreneurship. In C. Kent, D. Sexton, and K. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, 209-223. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 217-226.

Sharma, P., & Chrisman, J.J. (1999). Toward a reconciliation of the definitional issues in the field of corporate entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(2): 11-27.

Shih, C., & Chang, Y. (2008). Creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in R&D management. R&D Management, 38(3): 253-264.

Stevenson, H., & Jarillo, J. (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal, 11: 17-27.

Stopford, J.M., & Baden-Fuller, C.W.F. (1990). Creating corporate entrepreneurship. Strategic Management Journal, 15(7): 521-537.

Tan J. (2001). Innovation and risk-taking in a transitional economy: A comparative study of Chinese managers and entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(4): 359-377.

Tan J. (2007). Phase transitions and emergence of entrepreneurship: The transformation of Chinese SOEs over time. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1): 77-96.

Verbeke, A, Chrisman, J, & Yuan, W. (2007). A note on strategic renewal and corporate venturing in the subsidiaries of multinational enterprises. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(4): 585-600.

Wang, C.L. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and firm performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(4): 635-657.

Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2): 171-181.

Wiklund, J., & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: A configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1): 71-91.

Woolley, J.L., & Rottner, R.M. (2008). Innovation policy and nanotechnology entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(5): 791-811.

Zahra, S.A. (1993). Environment, corporate entrepreneurship, and financial performance: A taxonomic approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 8: 319-340.

Zahra, S.A., & Covin, J.G. (1995). Contextual influences on the corporate entrepreneurship-performance relationship: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 10: 43-58.

Zahra, S.A., & Garvis D.M. (2000). International corporate entrepreneurship and firm performance: The moderating effect of international environmental hostility. Journal of Business Venturing, 15: 469-93.

Zahra, S.A., Jennings, D.F., & Kuratko, D.F. (1999). The antecedents and consequences of firm-level entrepreneurship: The state of the field. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(2): 45-65.

Zahra, S.A., Nielsen, A.P., & Bogner, W.C. (1999). Corporate entrepreneurship, knowledge, and competence development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23(3): 169-189.
How to Cite
KREISER, Patrick M.; DAVIS, Justin. A Revised Conceptual Model of the Firm-Level Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Small Business Strategy, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 1, p. 1-18, jan. 2009. ISSN 2380-1751. Available at: <https://libjournals.mtsu.edu/index.php/jsbs/article/view/113>. Date accessed: 25 apr. 2019.