Strategic Entrepreneurship: Imitation Versus Substitution
AbstractWhile entrepreneurship is linked with innovation, entrepreneurial firms often imitate competitors rather than offering new substitute products or services. This research examines the conditions under which entrepreneurs utilize an imitation versus a substitution strategy by integrating entrepreneurial orientation with resource-based view of the firm in considering entrepreneurs' resource accumulation decisions. We apply this integration to the managerial decision of whether to imitate competitors or create substitute products or services.
Baird, I.S. & Thomas, H. (1985). Toward a contingency model of strategic risk taking. Academy of Management Review, 10: 230-243.
Barney, J.B. (1986). Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11: 656-665.
Barney, J.B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.
Bourgeois, L.J. & Brodwin, D.R. (1984). Strategic implementation: Five approaches to an elusive phenomenon. Strategic Management Journal, 5: 241-264.
Brown-Johnson, N. & Droege, S.B. (2004). Reflections on the generalization of agency theory: Cross-cultural considerations. Human Resource Management Review, 14(3): 325-335.
Burgelman, R.A. (1983). A process model of internal corporate venturing in the diversified major firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 223-244.
Cantillon, R. (1734). Essai sur la nature du commerce en general (Essay on the nature of general commerce, in French). (Henry Higgs, Translator). London: Macmillan.
Cohen, W.M. & Levinthal, D.A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1): 128-153.
Conner, K.R. (1995). Obtaining strategic advantage from being imitated. Management Science. 41(2): 209-225.
Covin, J.G., Green, K.M., & Slevin, D.P. (2006). Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial orientation-sales growth rate relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, January: 57-81.
Covin, J.G. & Miles, M.P. (1999). Corporate entrepreneurship and the pursuit of competitive advantage. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Spring: 47-63.
Covin, J.G. & Slevin, D.P. (1988). The influence of organization structure on the utility of an entrepreneurial top management style. Journal of Management Studies, 25: 217-234.
Covin, J.G. & Slevin, D.P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environements. Strategic Management Journal, 10: 75-87.
Deeds, D.L., Decarolis, D., & Coombs, J.E. (1997). The impact of firm-specific capabilities on the amount of capital raised in an initial public offering: Evidence from the biotechnology industry. Journal of Business Venturing, 12: 31-46.
Dess, G.G. & Beard, D.W. (1984). Dimensions of organizational task environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 52-73.
Dess, G.G., Lumpkin, G.T., & McGee, J.E. (1999). Linking corporate entrepreneurship to strategy, structure, and process: Suggested research directions. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23(3): 85-102.
Dess, G.G. & Lumpkin, G.T. (2005). The role of entrepreneurial orientation in stimulating effective corporate entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Executive, 19(1): 147- 156.
Dierickx, I. & Cool, K. (1989). Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of firm performance. Management Science, 35: 1504-1514.
Dixit, A.K. & Pindyck, R.S. (1994). Investment Under Uncertainty. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hage, J. (1980). Theories of Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Hart, S. (1992). An Integrative framework for strategy making processes. Academy of Management Review, 17: 327-351.
Ireland, R.D., Hitt, M.A. & Sirmon, D.G. (2003). A model of strategic entrepreneurship: The construct and its dimensions. Journal of Management, 29: 963-989.
Kemelgor, B.H. (2002). A comparative analysis of corporate entrepreneurial orientation between selected firms in the Netherlands and the USA. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 14: 67-87.
Kimberly, J.R. (1981). Managerial Innovation. In: Nystrom, P.S. & W.H. Starbuck (Eds). Handbook of Organizational Design. New York: Oxford Press.
Knight, F. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit. New York: Harper and Row.
Knight, G.A. (1997). Cross-cultural reliability and validity of a scale to measure firm entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Business Venturing, 12: 213-225.
Kogut, B. & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3: 383-397.
Kreiser, P.M., Marino, L.D. & Weaver, K.M. (2002). Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial orientation scale: A multi-country analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Summer: 71-94.
Kuhn, T. S. (1971). The Structure of Scientific Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lumpkin, G.T. & Dess, G.G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21: 135-172.
MacMillan, I.C. & Day, D.L. (1987). Corporate ventures into industrial markets: Dynamics of aggressive entry. Journal of Business Venturing , 2: 29-39.
March, J.G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2: 71- 87.
Marino, L.S., Strandholm, K., Steensma, K., Weaver, K., & Mark, K. (2002). The moderating effect of national culture on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and strategic alliance portfolio extensiveness. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Summer: 145- 161.
Miller, A. & Camp, B. (1985). Exploring determinants of success in corporate ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 1: 87-105.
Miller, D. & Friesen, P. H. (1978). Archetypes of strategy formation. Management Science, 24: 921-933.
Miller, D. & Shamsie, J. (1996). A contingent application of the resourcebased view of the firm: The Hollywood film studios from 1936 to 1965. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 57-61.
Mintzberg, H. & Waters, J. A. (1985). Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. Strategic Management Journal, 6: 257-272.
Myers, S.C. (1977). Determinants of corporate borrowing. Journal of Financial Economics, 5(2): 147-175.
Nahapiet, J. & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23: 242-266.
Penrose, E.T. (1959). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Great Britain: Basil Blackwell & Mott.
Peteraf, M. (1993). The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resourcebased view. Strategic Management Journal, 14: 179-192.
Pinchot, G.I. (1985). Intrapreneuring: Why You Don't Have to Leave the Corporation to Become an Entrepreneur. New York: Harper & Row.
Porter, M.E. (1980). Competitive Strategy. New York: Free Press.
Richard, O.C., Barnett, T., Dwyer, S., & Chadwick, K. (2004). Cultural diversity in management, firm performance, and the moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation dimensions. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2): 255-266.
Shane, S. & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 217-226.
Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stuart, T.E., Hoang, H., & Hybels, R.C. (1999). Interorganizational endorsements and the performance of entrepreneurial ventures, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 315-349.
Venkatraman, N. (1989). Strategic orientation of business enterprises: The construct, dimensionality, and measurement. Management Science, 20: 510-544.
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5: 171-180.
Wiklund, J. (1999). The sustainability of the entrepreneurial orientation- performance relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Fall: 37-48.
Wiklund, J. & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: A configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20: 701-91.
Williamson, O.E. (1981). The economics of organizations: The transaction cost approach. American Journal of Sociology, 87: 548-577.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.