A Model of Potential Entrepreneurship: Profiles and Educational Implications

James W. Carland, JoAnn C. Carland

Abstract


In an effort to determine the propensity for  entrepreneurship  of potential  entrepreneurs, students enrolled in Small Business Management classes at the graduate and undergraduate level were examined. A series of surveys including Jackson's Personality Inventory for Innovation and Risk Taking, and Jackson's PRF for Need for Achievement as well as the Carland Entrepreneurship Index were completed. The results supported the empirical development of a model of potential entrepreneurship. That model was tested from theoretical, statistical and visual perspectives. Finally, the model was used to develop implications for entrepreneurship education.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Barbato, R.J. & Durlabhji, S. ( 1 989). Budding entrepreneurs: Business student and dislocated workers, Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, I (1), March, 49-57.

Birley, S., Gross, C. & Saunders, P. (1986). The differences between small firms started by male and female entrepreneurs who attended small business courses. Frontiers of Small Business Proceedings. 21 1 -222.

Brockhaus, R.H. ( 1 982). Psychology of the Entrepreneur. In Kent, Sexton, Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. Englewood Cl iffs, NJ: Prentice Hal l.

Bruni ng, J.L. & K intz, B.L. (1987). Computational Handbook of Statistics. Glenview, I L: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Carland, J.W., Carland, J.A., & Dye, J.L. (1991). Profiles of new venturists and corporate managers: Is there a difference? Proceedings of the United States Association of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Madison, WI: USASBE, 48-57.

Carland, J.W., Carland, J.A., & Hoy, F. (1992). An entrepreneurship index: An empirical val idation, Presented to the Babson Entrepreneurship Conference, Fontai nebleau, France, June.

Carland,J.W., Hoy, F., Boulton, W.R.,& Carland, J.A. (1984). Differentiating small business owners form entrepreneurs. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), April, 354-359.

Carland, J.W., Hoy, F. & Carland, J.A. ( 1988). 'Who is an entrepreneur?' is a question worth asking. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), Spring, 33-39.

Drucker, P. (1985). innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Ely, R.T. (1912). Outline of Economics (Revised Edition). New York, NY: MacMillan.

Fromm, E. ( 1959). The creative attitude. In (Ed. H.A. Anderson) Creativity and its Cultivation. New York: Harper Brothers.

Gartner, W.B. ( 1988). 'Who is an entrepreneur?' is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), 1 1-32.

Gatewood, E.J., Shaver, K.G., & Gartner, W.B. (1992). Cognitive factors in entrepreneurial persistence. Presented to the Babson Entrepreneurship Conference, Fontainebleau,June.

Hall man, R.J. (1963). The necessary and sufficient conditions of creativity, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 3(1), Spring.

Hills, G.E. & Welsch, H. ( 1 986). Entrepreneurship behavioral intentions and student independence, characteristics and experiences. In Ronstadt, R., Hornaday, J., Peterson, R., Vesper, K. (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, 1 73-1 86.

Hoy, F. & Boulton, W. R. ( 1983). Problem-solving of students--Areeducators prod ucing what busi ness needs? Collegiate News and Views, 36(3), 15-21 .

Jackson, D.N. (1974). Personality Research Form Manual. Goshen, NY: Research Psychologists Press.

Jackson, D.N. (1976). Personality inventory Manual. Goshen, NY: Research Psychologists Press.

Jackson, D.N. & S.M. Guthrie ( 1968). A multi-trait evaluation of the personal ity research fonn. Proceedings, American Psychology Association.

Kilby, P. (1971). Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Lowenfeld, V. (1958). Current research on creativity; Journal of the National Educational Association, 47, 538-540.

Maltzman, I. (1960). On the training of originality, Psychological Review, 67, 229-242. McClelland, D.C. (1961 ). The Achieving Society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.

Mil l, J.S. (1848). Principles of Political Economy. London, England: John W. Parker.

M iller, A. ( 1 987). New ventures: A fresh emphasis on entrepreneurial education. Survey of Business, 23(1), Summer.

Parnes, S.J. ( 1982). Can creativity be increased? In (Eds. Parnes and Hardi ng), A Source Book for Creative Thinking, New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 185-192.

Robinson, P.B., Huefner, J.C., & Hunt, H.K., (1991). Entrepreneurial research on student subjects does not general ize to real world entrepreneurs, Journal of Small Business Management, 29(2), January, 42-50.

Sexton, D.L. & Bowman, N.C. ( 1983). Comparative entrepreneurial characteristics of students: Preliminary results. I n Hornaday, J., Ti mmons, J. & Vesper, K. (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wel lesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, 21 3-232.

Sexton, D.L. & Bowman, N.C. (1984). Personality inventory for potential entrepreneurs: Evaluationofa modified, J Pl/PRF-E instrument. In Hornaday, J., Tarpley, F., Timmons,

J. & Vesper, K. (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, 513-523.

Sexton, D.L. & Bowman, N.C. (1986). Validation of personality index: Comparative psycho logical analysis of female entrepreneurs, managers, entrepreneurshipstudents and business students. In Ronstadt, R., Hornaday, J., Peterson, R., Vesper, K. (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, 40-51.

Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Solomon, G.T. & Fernald, L.W. (1990). A comparative analysis of entrepreneur and college business student values. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 24(4), 238-255.

Stewart, H. W., Carland, J.A. and Carland,J. W. (1996). Empirically defining the entrepreneur, Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 8(1), March, 1 -1 8.

Torrance, E.P. (1966). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Norms-Technical Manual (research ed.) Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press.

Torrance, E.P. & Myers, R.E. ( 1970). Creative Learning and Teaching. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.

Vesper, K.H. (1 990). New Venture Strategies, Revised Edition, Englewood Cl iffs: Prentice­ Hall.

Wilkinson, L. (1990). SYSTAT Evanston, I L: Systat Inc.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


sbi-web_120