Self-Actualization: The Zenith of Entrepreneurship

  • James W. Carland, Jr. Western Carolina University
  • Jo Ann C. Carland Western Carolina University
  • James W. (Trey) Carland, III Western Carolina University


This paper presents entrepreneurship  literature  which supports  a treatment  of entrepreneurial drive as a continuum. Behavioral differences among entrepreneurs are presented and examined in the light of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The two perspectives are linked by a perspective of entrepreneurial activity as a vehicle which can support one's advancement through all levels of the hierarchy. This perspective is examined empirically with a database of 156 entrepreneurs, and the authors conclude that the respondents in this study who displayed higher entrepreneurial drive did view their businesses as vehicles for achieving self-esteem and self-actualization. Those respondents displaying lower entrepreneurial drive viewed their firms as vehicles for providing  basic financial  needs.

Jan 10, 1995
How to Cite
CARLAND, JR., James W.; CARLAND, Jo Ann C.; CARLAND, III, James W. (Trey). Self-Actualization: The Zenith of Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Strategy, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 53-66, jan. 1995. ISSN 2380-1751. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 feb. 2018.

Most read articles by the same author(s)