Knowledge Management and Organizational Culture in a Software Development Enterprise
The aim of this study was to analysis knowledge management and organizational culture at a Spanish software development enterprise. For this purpose, two different tasks were performed: first, analysis of knowledge management levels and organizational culture; and second, analysis of the relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management. The sample consisted of 196 employees between 21 and 45 years old, with 119 (61.3%) men. To achieve the objectives, adaptations of the Organizational Knowledge Practices (OKP) questionnaire (Cortijo, & Quintanilla, 2004) and the “Organizational Culture Inventory” (OCI) were used (Cooke & Lafferty, 1987). Based on the results, it appears that the company is oriented towards a constructive organizational culture. It also seems that the company emphasizes efficient knowledge management practices, especially in regard to teamwork. Finally, the link between organizational culture and knowledge management seems to be proven. As hypothesized, constructive culture is positively related to knowledge management performance, while Passive–Defensive and Aggressive–Defensive cultures are negatively related. All these results are particularly interesting considering that in the scientific literature such relationships have been proposed from a theoretical perspective, but only a few studies have explored these questions at the empirical level.
Al-Hakim, L., & Hassan, S. (2016). Core requirements of knowledge management implementation, innovation and organizational performance. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 17(1), 109.
Al-Qudah, S., & Altaher, A. (2016). The impact of knowledge management in financial companies' imperial case study. Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 6(1), 131-141.
Alavi, M., Kayworth, T. R., & Leidner, D. E. (2006). An empirical examination of the influence of organizational culture on knowledge management practices background on knowledge management. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(3), 191-224.
Alrubaiee, L., Alzubi, H. M., Hanandeh, R., & Al Ali, R. (2015). Investigating the relationship between knowledge management processes and organizational performance the mediating effect of organizational innovation. International Review of Management and Business Research, 4(4), 989-1009.
Alves, J. B. (2014). Knowledge management in a changing society. International Review of Management and Business Research, 3(3), 1401-1407.
Andreu, R. & Sieber, S. (1999). Comprehensive management of knowledge and learning. [In Spanish]. Economía Industrial, 326, 63-72.
Audretsch, D. B. (2014). From the entrepreneurial university to the university for the entrepreneurial society. Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 313-321.
Balthazard, P. A., & Cooke, R. A. (2004). Organizational culture and knowledge management success: Assessing the behavior – performance continuum. System Sciences, 1-10.
Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120. doi: 10.1177/014920639101700108
Bell, D. (1976). The coming of post-industrial society. New York, Basic Books.
Birasnav, M. (2014). Knowledge management and organizational performance in the service industry: The role of transformational leadership beyond the effects of transactional leadership. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1622-1629. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.09.006
Boglarsky, C. A. (2005). Five steps to a successful merger/acquisition. Workspan, 48, 50-52.
Bonavía, T. & Quintanilla, I (1996). Culture in organizations and their effects on employee involvement. [In Spanish]. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y las Organizaciones, 12(1). 7-26.
Bordeianu, O. (2015). The role of knowledge management and knowledge management strategies within learning organizations. Ecoforum, 4(1), 147-154.
Brooking, A. (1997). Intellectual Capital [In Spanish]. Paidos Empresa, Barcelona.
Carneiro, A. (2000). How does knowledge management influence innovation and competitiveness? Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 87-98.
Chang, J., Choi, B., & Lee, H. (2004). An organizational memory for facilitating knowledge: an application to e-business architecture. Expert Systems with Applications, 26(2), 203-215. doi: 10.1016/S0957-4174(03)00135-0
Chang, T. C. & Chuang, S. H. (2011). Performance implications of knowledge management processes: Examining the roles of infrastructure capability and business strategy. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(5), 6170-6178. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.11.053
Chen, C. & Huang, J.-W. (2007). How organizational climate and structure affect knowledge management—The social interaction perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 27(2), 104-118. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2006.11.001
Chen, M., & Chen, A. (2006). Knowledge management performance evaluation: A decade review from 1995 to 2004. Journal of Information Science, 32(1), 17-38. doi: 10.1177/0165551506059220
Choi, B. & Lee, H. (2003). An empirical investigation on knowledge management styles and their effect on corporate performance. Information and Management, 40(5), 403-417.
Chua, A., & Heng, S. K. (2010). A knowledge management perspective on Art Education. International Journal of Information Management, 30(4), 326-334. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2009.12.002
Cooke, R. & Lafferty, J. (1987). Organizational culture inventory (OCI). Plymouth, MI: Human Synergistics.
Cooke, R. & Szumal, J. L. (1993). Measuring normative beliefs and shared behavioural expectations in organizations: The reliability and validity of the organizational culture inventory. Psychological Reports, 72, 1299-1330. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1993.72.3c.1299
Cooke, R. & Szumal, J. L. (2000). Using the organizational culture inventory to understand the operating cultures of organizations. In Ashkanasy, N. M, Wilderon, C. P, & Peterson, N. F (eds). Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate. Sage. Thousand Oaks, 4, 1032-1045.
Corbett, L. M. & Rastrick, K. N. (2000). Quality performance and organizational culture: A New Zealand study. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 17(1), 14-26.
Cortijo, O. & Quintanilla, I. (2004). Relationship between organizational culture and styles of influence on the practice of knowledge management in companies of the Valencian community. [In Spanish]. Research Dissertation not published. University of Valencia.
Davenport, T. & Prusak, L. (2000). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
De Long, D.W., & Fahey, L. (2000). Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), 113-127.
Denison, D. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. New York, Wiley.
Denison, D. & Mishra, A. (1995). Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organizational Science, 6(2), 204-223.
Denison, D. & Neale, W. (2000). Denison organizational culture survey. Ann Arbor: Denison Consulting.
Denison, D., Haaland, S., & Goelzer, P. (2003). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness: Is there a similar pattern around the world? Advances in Global Leadership, 3, 205-227.
Donate, M. J. & Guadamillas, F. (2010). The effect of organizational culture on knowledge management practices and innovation. Knowledge and Process Management, 17(2), 82-94.
Fey, C. & Denison, D. (2003). Organizational culture and effectiveness: Can American theory be applied in Russia? Organization Science, 14(6), 686-706.
Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: an organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185-214.
Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategy Management Journal, 17(S2), 109-122. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250171110
Harper, G., & Utley, D. (2001). Organizational culture and successful information technology implementation. Engineering Management Journal, 13(2), 11-16.
Hedlund, G. (1994). A model of knowledge management and the N-Form Corporation. Strategic Management Journal, 15(S2), 73-90
Hedlund, G., & Nonaka, I. (1993). Models of knowledge management in the West and Japan, In: P. Lorange, B. Chakravarthy, J. Roos, & A. Van de Ven (Eds.), Implementing Strategic Processes: Change, Learning and Co-operation. Blackwell, Oxford.
Hong, D., Suh, E., & Koo, C. (2011). Developing strategies for overcoming barriers to knowledge sharing based on conversational knowledge management: A case study of a financial company. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(12), 14417-14427.
Janz, B. D., & Prasarnphanich, P. (2003). Understanding the antecedents of effective knowledge management: The importance of a knowledge-centered culture. Decision Sciences, 34(2), 351-384. doi: 10.1111/1540-5915.02328
Jofreh, M., & Shirzad, L. (2015). Effects of organizational culture on knowledge management in Razi petrochemical company. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 4(1), 181-190.
Ju, T., Li, C, & Lee, T. (2006). A contingency model for knowledge management capability and innovation. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 106(6), 855-877.
King, A. W. & Zeithaml, C. P. (2001). Competencies and firm performance: Examining the causal ambiguity paradox. Strategic Management Journal, 22(1), 75-99.
King, A. W. & Zeithaml, C. P. (2003). Measuring organizational knowledge: a conceptual and methodological framework. Strategic Management Journal, 24(8), 763-772.
Kwantes, C. T. & Boglarsky, C. A. (2004). Do occupational groups vary in expressed organizational culture preferences? A study of six occupations in the United States. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 4(3), 335-353
Leydesdorff, L. (2012). The triple helix, quadruple helix, and an N-tuple of helices: Explanatory models for analyzing the knowledge-based economy? Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 3(1), 25-35.
Marchand, D. (1983). Strategies and Tools in Transition? Business and Economic Review, 29(5), 4–8.
Mason, D. & Pauleen, D. (2003). Perceptions of knowledge management: a qualitative analysis. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(4), 38-48.
Massa, S. & Testa, S. (2009). A knowledge management approach to organizational competitive advantage, evidence from the food sector. European Management Journal, 27(2), 129-141. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2008.06.005
McManus, D. & Loughridge, B. (2002). Corporate information, institutional culture and knowledge management: a UK university library perspective. New Library World, 103(9), 320-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03074800210445453
Nelson, R. & Winter, S. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press.
Nguyen, H. N. & Mohamed, S. (2011). Leadership behaviors, organizational culture and knowledge management practices: An empirical investigation. Journal of Management Development, 30(2), 206-221.
Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, N. (1995). The knowledge creating company. Oxford University Press.
Nonaka, I., Kodama, M., Hirose, A., & Kohlbacher, F. (2014). Dynamic fractal organizations for promoting knowledge-based transformation. A new paradigm for organizational theory. European Management Journal, 32(1), 137-146.
O’Dell C. & Grayson C. J. (1998). If we only know what we know. The transfer of internal knowledge and best practice. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Palanisamy, R. (2007). Organizational culture and knowledge management in ERP implementation: An empirical study. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 48(2), 100-120.
Paraponaris, C. (2003). Third Generation R&D and Strategies for Knowledge Management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(5), 96-106.
Park, H., Ribiere, V., & Schulte, W. (2004). Critical attributes of organizational culture that promote knowledge management implementation success. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(3), 106-117.
Prado-Gascó, V. (2012). Organizational culture and knowledge management in university R&D groups [In Spanish]. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Valencia.
Quintanilla, I. (2003). Businesses and People: Knowledge Management and Human Capital [In Spanish]. Madrid: Díaz de Santos.
Ramírez, A. M. & Morales, V. J. G. (2011). Improving competitiveness trough creation of knowledge and reverse logistics. Engineering Economics, 22(4), 443-450.
Rodríguez, M. (2013). Knowledge-intensive business services and R&D diffusion: A comparative assessment of some EU27 countries. Engineering Economics, 24(4), 300-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ee.24.4.2081
Romero, J. (2004). Analysis and design of a Knowledge Management project in an SME in the textile sector. [In Spanish]. Doctoral Dissertation. Polytechnic University of Cataluña.
Rousseau, D. M. (1990). Normative beliefs in fund-raising organizations: Linking culture to organizational performance and individual responses. Group and Organization Studies, 15, 448-460.
Schein. E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.
Sedziuviene, N., & Vveinhardt, J. (2010). Competitiveness and innovations: role of knowledge management at a knowledge organization. Engineering Economics, 21(5), 525-536.
Sheridan, J. E. (1992). Organizational culture and employee retention. Academy of Management Journal, 35(5), 1036-1056.
Skyrme, D. (1999). Knowledge networking. Creating the collaborative enterprise. Oxford. Butterworth Heinemann.
Thoben, K-D., Weber, F., & Wunram, M. (2002). Barriers in knowledge management and pragmatic approaches. Studies in Informatics and Control, 11(1), 7-15.
Thoene, M. A., & Buszko, A. (2014). Quantitative model of tacit knowledge estimation for pharmaceutical industry. Engineering Economics, 25(1), 40-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ee.25.1.5083
Wensley, A., & Verwijk-O’Sullivan, A. (2000). Tools for knowledge management. In C., Despres, & D., Chauvel (Eds), Knowledge Horizon: The present and the Promise of Knowledge Management. Woburn: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Wiig, K. (1997). Integrating intellectual capital and knowledge management. Long Range Planning, 30 (3), 399-405.
Yang, J. T. & Wan, C. S. (2004). Advancing organizational effectiveness and knowledge management implementation. Tourism Management, 25(5), 593-601.
Yauch, C. A. & Steudel, H. J (2003). Complementary use of qualitative and quantitative cultural assessment methods. Organizational Research Methods, 6(4), 465-481
Zapata, L. E. (2004). Determinants of generation and transfer of knowledge in small and medium enterprises sector of information technologies of Barcelona [In Spanish]. Doctoral Dissertation. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.
Zhuge, H. (2002). A knowledge flow model for peer-to-peer team knowledge sharing and management. Expert System with Applications, 23(1), 23-30.
Zieba, M. & Zieba, K. (2014). Knowledge management critical success factors and the innovativeness of KIBS companies. Engineering Economics, 25(4), 458-465.