Felt Fair Pay of Small to Medium-sized Enterprise Owners in Finland and Lavia: An Examination of Jaques' Equality Construct*
AbstractThis study tests a portion of Jaques' theory of equitable payment, using two samples of small to medium-sized business owners in Finland and Latvia. Results support Jaques' proposition about who would be satisfied with their pay level and who would be dissatisfied.
Adams, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.
Amado, G. (1995). Why psychoanalytical knowledge helps us understand organizations: A discussion with Elliott Jaques. Human Relations, 48 (4), 351-357.
Allison, D. & Morfitt, G. (1996). Time span of discretion and administrative work in school systems: Results of a pilot study. Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations, 11 (1) 8-37.
Ash, R., Dreher, G., & Bretz, R. (1987). Dimensionality and stability of the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.
Belcher, D.W. (1974). Compensation administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Berkowitz, L., Fraser, C., Treasure, F., & Cochran, S. (1987). Pay, equity, job gratifications, and comparisons in pay satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 544-551.
Brockner, J. (2002). Making sense of procedural fairness: How high procedural fairness can reduce or heighten the influence of outcome favorability. Academy of Management Review, 27 (1) 58-76.
Brookes, D. (1994). Today's compensation systems: rewarding the wrong things. Canadian Manager, 19 (4) 10-11.
Bushe, G. & Havlovic, S. (1996). Exploring empowerment from the inside-out. Journal for Quality & Participation, 19 (3), 78-83.
Carraher, S. (2003). The father of cross-cultural research: An interview with Geert Hofstede. Journal of Applied Management & Entrepreneurship, 8 (2), 97-108.
Carraher, S.M. & Buckley, M.R. (1995). The prediction of satisfaction with compensation. Southwest Academy of Management Proceedings, 37, 96-99.
Carraher, S.M. & Buckley, M.R. (1996). The effect of cognitive complexity on the perceived dimensionality of the PSQ. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 102-109.
Carraher, S., Buckley, M., & Carraher, C. (2002). Cognitive complexity with employees from entrepreneurial financial information service organizations and educational instituteions: An extension & replication. Academv of Strategic Management Journal, 1 (1), 43-56.
Carraher, S., Carraher, S.C., & Whitely, W. (2003). Global work norms and income among entrepreneurs & professional employees: A 7-country study. South West Review of International Business Research, 14, 281-290.
Carraher, S., Hart, D., & Carraher, C. (2003). Attitudes towards benefits among entrepreneurial employees. Personnel Review, 32 (6), 683-693.
Cox, A. (2000). The importance of employee participation in determining pay system effectiveness. International Journal of Management Reviews, 2 (4), 357-375.
Eshima, Y. (2003). Impact of public policy on innovative SMEs in Japan. Journal of Small Business Management, 41 (1), 85-93.
Federighi, E.T. (1959). Extended tables of the percentage points of Student's t-distribution. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 54, 683-688.
Gordon, M. (1969). An evaluation of Jaques' studies of pay in the light of current compensation research. Personnel Psychology, 22, 369-389.
Griffeth, R & Gaertner, S. (2001). A role of equity theory in the turnover process: An empirical test. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31 (5), 1017-1037.
Harman, H. ( 1967). Modern factor analysis, 2nd Ed. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press.
Hellriegel, D. & French, W. (1969). A critique of Jaques' equitable payment system. Industrial Relations, 8, 269-279.
Heneman, H. (1985). Pay satisfaction. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 3, 115-139.
Heneman, H. & Berkley, R. (1999). Applicant attraction practices and outcomes among small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management, 37 (1), 53-74.
Heneman, H. & Schwab, D.P. (1979). Work and rewards theory. In D. Yoder & H.G. Heneman (Eds.), ASPA Handbook of Personnel and Industrial Relations (pp. 6.1 - 6.22). Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs.
Heneman, H. & Schwab, D. (1985). Pay satisfaction: Its multidimensional nature and measurement. International Journal of Psychology, 20 (2), 129-141.
Heneman, R. (2000). Human resource management practices in small and medium-sized entrepreises: Unanswered questions and future research directions. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 25 (1), 11-26.
Jaques, Elliot (1961). Equitable Payment. New York: Wiley.
Jaques, Elliot (1962). Measurement of Responsibility. London: Bradford and Dickens.
Jaques, Elliot (1964). Time Span Handbook. London: Heinemann.
Jaques, Elliot (1968). Progression Handbook. London: Morrison & Gibb.
Jaques, Elliot (1970). Equitable Payment 2nd ed. London: Morrison & Gibb.
Jaques, Elliot (1996). Requisite Organization. 2nd ed. Arlington, VA: Cason Hall & Co.
Katzell, R. A. (1964). Personal values, job satisfaction, and job behavior. In H. Borow (Ed.), Man in a world of work, (pp. 341-363). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Lambert, S. (2000). Added benefits: The link between work-life benefits and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 43 (5), 801-815.
Lawler, E.E. (1971). Pay and organizational effectiveness: A psychological viewpoint. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lawler, E.E. (1981). Pay and organizational development. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Law, K. & Wong, C. (1998). Relative importance of referents on pay satisfaction: A review and test of a new policy-capturing approach. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71 (1), 47-60.
Lip-Bluman, J. & Leavitt, H. (1999). Hot groups and the HR manager: How to fire up your employees. HR Focus, 76(8), 11-12.
Miceli, M. & Lane, M.C. (1991). Antecedents of pay satisfaction: A review and extension. In G.R. Ferris & K.M. Rowland (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management. Vol. 9 (pp. 235-309). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Miceli, M. & Mulvey, P. (2000). Consequences of satisfaction with pay systems: Two field studies. Industrial Relations, 39 (1), 62-87.
Milkovich, G.T. & Campbell, K. (1972). A study of Jaques' norms of equitable payment. Industrial Relations, 11 (2), 267-271.
Mulvey, P., LeBlanc., P., Heneman, R., & McInerney, M. (2002). Study finds that knowledge of pay process can beat out amount of pay in employee retention, organizational effecttiveness. Journal of Organizational Analysis, 21 (4), 29-42.
Nystrom, P.C. (1973). Equity theory and career pay: A computer simulation approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 125-131.
Peach, E. & Wren, D. (1992). Pay for performance from antiquity to the 1950's. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 12, 5-26.
Podsakoff, P. & Organ, D. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531-544.
Richardson, R. (1971). Fair pay and work. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Rice, R.W., Phillips, S.M. & McFarlin, D.B. (1990). Multiple discrepancies and pay satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 386-393.
Rynes, S. & Gerhart, B. (2003). Compensation: Theory, Evidence, and Strategic Implications. Sage.
Shaw, J. & Gupta, N. (2001). Pay fairness and employee outcomes: Exacerbation and attenuation effects of financial need. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 74 (3), 299-320.
Weiner, N. (1980). Determinants and behavioral consequences of pay satisfaction: A comparison of two models. Personnel Psychology, 33, 741-757.
Weiss, D.J., Dawis, R.V., England, G.W., & Lofquist, L.H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minneapolis: Industrial Relations Center, University of Minnesota.
Werner, S. & Mero, N. (1999). Fair or foul?: The effects of external, internal, and employee equity on changes in performance of major league baseball players. Human Relations, 52(10), 1291-1310.
Williams, M.L. & Brower, H.H. (1996). A comparative model and measure of pay satisfaction. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.
Wintermans, J. (1994). The problem of 'articulate incompetence.' Canadian Business Review, 21 (1), 42-43.
Zapalska, A. & Edwards, W. (2001). Chinese entrepreneurship in a cultural and economic perspective. Journal of Small Business Management, 39 (3), 286-292.