The Impact of Training and Development Activities on Small Technology Oriented Entrepreneurial Firm Performance


  • Jeffery S. Bracker University of Louisville
  • Debra J. Cohen George Washington University


Based on prior research in training and development , planning and performance, and entrepreneurship, it was predicted that formal training and development would play an important role in shaping the strategic planning process and subsequent entrepreneurial firm performance. Data from  73 founder/managers of technology oriented  electronic  businesses were collected and analyzed to determine the impact of T & D on firm performance. More specifically the study investigated  the relationships between training and development, the perceived  benefits of training and development , and the sophistication of a firm' s strategic orientation to planning . Preliminary  results indicate that training and development are related to firm  performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Berry, J. ( 1990). Linking management development to business strategies. Training and Development Journal 4(8), 20-22.

Boyd, B. K. (1989). Once more into the breach: A meta-analytic review of the relationship between strategic planning and firm performance. Paper presented at the Western Academy of Management Meeting.

Bracker, J. S. (1982). Planning and financial performance among small entrepreneurial firms: An industry study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University.

Bracker, J., & Methe, D. (1988). Successful venture start-ups and growth in the United States, Western Europe and Asia: Patterns and practice. Paper presented at the Eighth Annual Strategic Management Society Conference, Amsterdam.

Bracker, J ., Keats, B., & Pearson, J. (1988). Planning and financial performance among small firms in a growth industry. Strategic Management Journal , 9, 591-603.

Bracker, J. S., & Pearson, J. N. (1986). Planning and financial performance of small, mature firms. Strategic M anagement Journal, 7(3), 251-266.

Brown, I., Christy, R. & Banowetz, A. (1987). Perceptions of success in business start-up and the impact of entrepreneurial education. Proceedings, Babson Entrepreneurship Con­ ference , 600-603.

Carland, J., Hoy, W. R., Boulton, W. R. & Carland, A. C. (1984). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 9, 354-359.

Carnevale, A. P., & Gainer, L. J. (1988). The /earning enterprise. Interim report published by the U.S. Department of Labor and the American Society for Training and Development.

Chrisman, J., & Leslie, J. (1989). Strategic, administrative, and operating problems: The impact of outsiders on small firm performance. Journal of Business Venturing , 13(3), 37-5 I .

Chrisman, J., Hoy, F. & Robinson, R. B. (1987). New venture development: The costs and benefits of public sector assistance. Journal of Business Venturing , 2, 315-328.

Chrisman, J., & Ortech, J. (1989). Strategic, administrative, and operating problems: The impact of outsiders on firm performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13(3), 37- 52.

Cohen, D. (1990). The pre-training environment: A conceptualization of bow contextual factors influence participant motivation. Human Resource Development Quarterly , /(4), 387-398.

Dess, A. G., & Robinson, R. B. (1984). Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures. Strategic Management Journal, 5(3), 265-274.

Dillman, D. A. ( 1987). Mail and telephone surveys: The total design method . New York: Wiley. Gamier. B .. & Gasse. Y. ( 1'990). Training entrepreneurs through newspapers. Journal of Small Business Management . 28( I ), 70- 73.

Hall , D. (1984). H uman resource development and organizational effecti veness. In C. Fombrun, N. Tichy. & and M . Devanna (Eds.), Strategic human resource management. New York: John Wiley.

Hyatt, J. (1989, August). Rewriting the book on entrepreneurship. INC ., pp. 86-93.

Kailer, N. (1990). Further trai ning in small and medium sized enterprises (Austria). Journal of Small Business M anagement , 28(1); 60-63.

Kalinowski. J., Enein , G., & Klasson, C. (1989). Planning sophistication. managerial belief systen1 , and the performance of small , stood product firms in a mature industry• . Paper presented at the 49 Annual Meeti ng of the Academy of Management , Washington. D.C.

Keats, B. W., & Montanari , J. R. (1986). Stages of strategic sophistication: A del'elopmental model. Pap r presented at the Decision Sciences Institute National Meetings, Honol ulu. Mangum, S., Mangum, G., & Hansen, G. (1 990). Assessing the returns to training. In L. Ferman. M . Hayman , J. Cutcher-Gershenfeld. & E. Savoie (Eds.), New developments in worker training: A legacy for the / 990' s. The Industrial Relations Research Association Series.

Miner. J. ( 1 990). Entrepreneurs, high growth entrepreneurs, and managers: Contrasting and overlappi ng moti vational patterns. Journal of Business Venturing , 5(4), 221 -234.

Norton. J . ( 1986. April 10). Personal Communication.

Pearce, J. A., Freeman, E. B., & Robinson, R. B. (1987). The tenuous link between formal strategic planning and financial performance. Academy of Management Review, 12, 658-675.

Pearson , J., Feldman , H., & Bracker, J. (1991 ). The impact of the product/ roduction process interaction on the evolution of strategic response. The Journal of Management Studies , 211(2), 161 -172.

Reid, D. M. (1989). Operationalizing strategic planning. Strategic M anagement Journal , 10 ,553-567.

Robinson , R. B., & McDougall (1985). Patterns of operational planning and business unit performance. Paper presented at the 45th National Academy of Management Meeting, San Diego.

Robinson, R . B., & Pearce, J . A. (1984). Research thrusts in small firm strategic plann ing. Academy of M anagement Review , 9 , 128-137.

Rue, L. W. (1973). Theoretical am/ operational implications of long-range planning on selected 1nea.sures of financial performance in U .S . industry . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University.

Vesper, K. (1985). Entrepreneurial education. Welsley, MA: Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Babson College.

Vesper, K .. & McMullan, W. (1 988). Entrepreneurship: Today courses, tomorrow degrees'! Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice , 13(1), 7-14.

Wood, P. R. , Jr. & Laforge, R . L. ( 1979). The impact of comprehensive planning on financial performance. Academy of M anagement Journal , 72, 516-526.

Zcithaml, C.. & Fry , L. ( 1984). An e1npirical examincuion of 1nature businesses infour dynamic performance situations: Contextual and strategic differences. Paper presented at the 44th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. Boston.