Doing Good by Telling Stories: Emotion in Social Entrepreneurship Communication

  • Philip T. Roundy University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Abstract

Despite growing academic interest in social entrepreneurship, a critical challenge facing social ventures has yet to receive attention: how do social entrepreneurs communicate with their diverse groups of stakeholders? This topic is examined using an exploratory, partially inductive study consisting of semi-structured interviews, ethnographic observation, and a critical review of the practitioner literature. The result is a framework explaining the role played by narratives and emotion in social entrepreneurship communication. The findings contribute to work on organizational narrative theory, new venture communication strategies, stakeholder evaluations of firms, and the marketing and entrepreneurship interface. Moreover, the study produces several practical implications for social entrepreneurs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allred, A. T., & Addams, H. L. (2006). After receiving financing, do INC. 500 companies continue to utilize their business plan? Journal of Small Business Strategy, 17(1), 17-26.

Alvord, S. H., Brown, L. D., & Letts, C. W. (2004). Social entrepreneurship and societal transformation. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3), 260-282.

Appel, M., & Richter, T. (2010). Transportation and Need for Affect in Narrative Persuasion: A Mediated Moderation Model. Media Psychology, 13(2), 101-135.

Baker, T., & Nelson, R. E. (2005). Creating something from nothing: Resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3), 329-366.

Baron, D. P. (2007). Corporate social responsibility and social entrepreneurship. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 16(3), 683-717.

Becherer, R. C., & Helms, M. M. (2009). The value of business plans for new ventures: company and entrepreneur outcomes. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 20(2), 81-96.

Bennett, R., & Sargeant, A. (2005). The nonprofit marketing landscape: guest editors' introduction to a special section. Journal of Business Research, 58(6), 797-805.

Bornstein, D., & Davis, S. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: What everyone needs to know. Oxford University Press.

Bosma, N., & Levie, J. (2010). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2009 executive report. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association.

Boyd, B., Henning, N., Reyna, E., W ang, D. E., & Welch, M. D. (2009). Hybrid organizations: New business models for environmental leadership. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Bugg-Levine, A., & Goldstein, J. (2009). Impact investing: Harnessing capital markets to solve problems at scale. Community Development Investment Review, 30-41.

Brouard, F., & Larivet, S. (2010). In A. Fayolle & H. Matlay (Eds.), Handbook on research on social entrepreneurship (pp. 29-56). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Chen, S., & Chaiken, S. (1999). The heuristic-systematic model in its broader context. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 73-96). New York: The Guilford Press.

Coplan, A. (2004). Empathic engagement with narrative fictions. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 62(2), 141-152.

Dacin, M. T., Dacin, P. A., & Tracey, P. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization Science, 22(5), 1203- 1213.

Downing, S. (2005). The social construction of entrepreneurship: Narrative and dramatic processes in the coproduction of organizations and identities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(2), 185-204.

Dunlop, S., Wakefield, M., & Kashima, Y. (2008). Can you feel it? Negative emotion, risk, and narrative in health communication. Media Psychology, 11(1), 52-75.

Escalas, J. E., & Stern, B. B. (2003). Sympathy and empathy: Emotional responses to advertising dramas. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4), 566-578.

Fayolle, A., & Matlay, H. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: A multicultural and multidimensional perspective. In A. Fayolle & H. Matlay (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Soc ial Entrepreneurship (pp. 1-14). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Galera, G., & Borzaga, C. (2009). Social enterprise: An international overview of its conceptual evolution and legal implementation. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(3), 210-228.

Garud, R., Dunbar, R. L. M., & Bartel, C. A. (2011). Dealing with unusual experiences: A narrative perspective on organizational learning. Organization Science, 22(3), 587-601.

Graebner, M. E., Martin, J. A., & Roundy, P. T. (2012). Qualitative data: Cooking without a recipe. Strategic Organization, 10(3), 276-284.

Hervieux, C., Gedajlovic, E., & Turcotte, M. F. B. (2010). The legitimization of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 4(1), 37-67.

Hills, G. E. (1999). An inaugural commentary for the Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 5-7.

Hills, G. E., & LaForge, R. W. (1992). Research at the marketing interface to advance entrepreneurship theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(3), 33-59.

Hills, G. E., Hultman, C. M., & Miles, M. P. (2008). The evolution and development of entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(1), 99-112.

Hogan, P. C. (2003). The mind and its stories: Narrative universals and human emotion. New York: Cambridge Univ Press.

Hsu, G., & Hannan, M. T. (2005). Identities, genres, and organizational forms. Organization Science, 16(5), 474-490.

Humphreys, M., & Brown, A. D. (2002). Narratives of organizational identity and identification: A case study of hegemony and resistance. Organization Studies, 23(3), 421-447.

Jones, R., Latham, J., & Betta, M. (2008). Narrative construction of the social entrepreneurial identity. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 14(5), 330-345.

Kahneman, D., & Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In T. Gilovic, D. Griffin & M. L. Kamil (Eds.), Heuristics and bi ases: The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 49-81). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Keen, S. (2006). A theory of narrative empathy. Narrative, 14(3), 207-236.

Leahy, G., & Villaneuve-Smith, F. (2009). State of Social Enterprise Survey. London: Social Enterprise Coalition.

Liao, J. J., Welsch, H., & Moutray, C. (2008). Start-up resource and entrepreneurial discontinuance: The case of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 19(2), 1-15.

Light, P. (2009). Searching for Social Entrepreneurs: Who they might be, where they might be found, what they do. In R. Mosher-Williams (Ed.), Research on social entrepreneurship: Understanding and contributing to an emerging field: Amova's Occasional Paper Series (pp. 13-37). Washington: Association for Research on Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations.

Lindsay, G., & Hems, L. (2004). Societes cooperatives d'interet collectif: the arrival of social enterprise within the French social economy. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 15(3), 265- 286.

Mair, J. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: Taking stock and looking ahead. In A. Fayolle & H. Matlay (Eds.), Handbook of research on social entrepreneurship (pp. 15-28). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36- 44.

Manetti, G. (2012). The Role of Blended Value Accounting in the Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impact of Social Enterprises. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 1-22.

Martens, M. L., Jennings, J. E., & Jennings, P. D. (2007). Do the stories they tell get them the money they need? The role of entrepreneurial narratives in resource acquisition. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1107- 1132.

Martin, R. L., & Osberg, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship: The case for definition. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 5(2), 28-39.

Mason, C., Kirkbride, J., & Bryde, D. (2007). From stakeholders to institutions: The changing face of social enterprise governance theory. Management Decision, 45(2), 284-301.

McAdams, D. P., Josselson, R. E., & Lieblich, A. E. (2006). Identity and Story: Creating Self in Narrative. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.

McFerran, B., Dahl, D. W., Gorn, G. J., & Honea, H. (2010). Motivational determinants of transportation into marketing narratives. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(3), 306-316.

Miall, D. S. (1988). Affect and narrative: A model of response to stories. Poetics, 17(3), 259-272.

Miles, M. B . & Huberman, A. M. ( 1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Miller, T. L., & Wesley II, C. L. (2010). Assessing mission and resources for social change: An organizational identity perspective on social venture capitalists' decision criteria. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 705-733.

Mooney, L. A., Knox, D., & Schacht, C. (2012). Understanding social problems. CengageBrain. com.

Morris, M. H., Coombes, S., Schindehutte, M., & Allen, J. (2007). Antecedents and outcomes of entrepreneurial and market orientations in a non-profit context: Theoretical and empirical insights. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(4), 12-39.

Nicholls, A. (2010). The legitimacy of social entrepreneurship: Reflexive isomorphism in a pre-paradigmatic field. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 611-633.

Oatley, K. (1999). Meetings of minds: Dialogue, sympathy, and identification, in reading fiction. Poetics, 26(5-6), 439-454.

Offstein, E. H., & Childers Jr, J. S. (2008). Small business e-commerce adoption through a qualitative lens: Theory and observations. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 19(1): 32-50.

Onega, S., & Landa, J. Á. G. (Eds.). (1996). Narratology: An introduction. London and New York: Longman.

Pekar, T. (2011). Invite your listener to share the story [Electronic Version]. Stanford Social Innovation Review, May from http://www.ssireview.org/blog/ entry/ invite_your_listener_to_share_ the_story/.

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In Advances in Experimental Psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 124-192). London: Academic Press Inc.

Pfarrer, M. D., Pollock, T. G., & Rindova, V. P. (2010). A tale of two assets: The effects of firm reputation and celebrity on earnings surprises and investors' reactions. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 1131-1152.

Porac, J. F., Mishina, Y., & Pollock, T. G. (2002). Entrepreneurial narratives and the dominant logics of high growth firms. In A. Huff & M. Jenkins (Eds.), Mapping Strategic Knowledge (pp. 112-136). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Pratt, M. G. (2009). From the editors: For the lack of a boilerplate: Tips on writing up (and reviewing) qualitative research. Academy of Management Journal, 52(5), 856-862.

Ravasi, D., & Phillips, N. (2011). Strategies of alignment. Strategic Organization, 9(2), 103.

Richardson, C. (2011). What social enterprises can learn from charities (Publication., from The Guardian: https://socialenterprise.guardian.co.uk/s ocial-enterprise-network/2011/feb/03/ brand-building-social-enterprise- charities.

Rispal, M. H., & Boncler, J. (2010). Social entrepreneurship in France: Organizational and relational issues. In A. Fayolle & H. Matlay (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Social Entrepreneurship (pp. 109-124). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Sachs, J. D. (2009). Common wealth: Economics for a crowded planet. London: Penguin Press.

Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics. 111(3), 335-351.

Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161- 194.

Shuy, R. W. (2003). In-person versus telephone interviewing. Inside interviewing: New lenses, new concerns, 175-193.

Slovic, P., Finucane, M., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2002). Rational actors or rational fools: implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics. Journal of Socio- Economics, 31(4), 329-342.

Sonenshein, S. (2010). We're changing - or are we? Untangling the role of progressive, regressive, and stability narratives during strategic change implementation. Academy of Management Review, 53(3), 477-512.

Stokes, D. (2000). Entrepreneurial marketing: A conceptualization from qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3(1), 47-54.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Sundin, E., & Tillmar, M. ( 2010). The intertwining of social, commercial, and public entrepreneurship. In A. Fayolle & H. Matlay (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Social Entrepreneurship (pp. 142-156). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Tetlock, P. C., Saar-Tsechansky, M., & Macskassy, S. (2008). More than words: Quantifying language to measure firms' fundamentals. The Journal of Finance, 63(3), 1437-1467.

Webb, J. W., Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A., Kistruck, G. M., & Tihanyi, L. (2011). Where is the opportunity without the customer? An integration of marketing activities, the entrepreneurship process, and institutional theory. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(4), 537-554.

Weisbrod, B. (1977). The voluntary nonprofit sector. Lexington: DC Heath and Co.

Yin, R. K. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Beverly Hills: Sage Publishing.

Zahra, S.A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D.O., and Shulman, J. M. (2009), "A typology of social entrepreneurs: motives, search processes and ethical challenges", Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 24 No. 5, pp. 519-532.
Published
2014-05-22
How to Cite
ROUNDY, Philip T.. Doing Good by Telling Stories: Emotion in Social Entrepreneurship Communication. Journal of Small Business Strategy, [S.l.], v. 24, n. 2, p. 41-68, may 2014. ISSN 2380-1751. Available at: <https://libjournals.mtsu.edu/index.php/jsbs/article/view/193>. Date accessed: 22 apr. 2019.
Section
Articles