How Do Entrepreneurial Growth Intentions Evolve? A Sensemaking-Sensegiving Perspective
AbstractIn this paper, we develop a process model to explain how growth intentions evolve over the venture's life cycle. Adopting an inductive approach, we use case study data from 30 small and medium enterprises (SME) with an explicit focus on venture growth over five years. Three waves of data were collected from the same set of lead entrepreneurs in these firms to identify if and why their intentions to grow their businesses changed over the timeframe. Using grounded theory development, we formulate a model characterizing entrepreneurial growth intentions. The model incorporates a sensemaking-sensegiving perspective and is recognized in terms of its constituent 3Ps (Precursors, Process and Product), serving to capture the essential dynamic of the entrepreneurial growth intention process over time.
Barnett, W.P. & Carroll, G.R. (1995). Modeling internal organizational change. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, pp. 217-236.
Baron, R.A. (1998). Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: Why and when entrepreneurs think differently than other people. Journal of Business Venturing, 13, pp. 275-294.
Barr, P.S., Stimpert, J.L., & Huff, A.S. (1992). Cognitive change, strategic action, and organizational renewal. Strategic Management Journal, 13, pp. 15- 36.
Barringer, B.R., Jones, F.F., & Neubaum, D.O. (2005). A quantitative content analysis of the characteristics of rapid-growth firms and their founders. Journal of Business Venturing, 20, pp. 663-687.
Bartunek, J.M., Krim, R.M., Necochea, R., & Humphries, M. (199). Sensemaking, sensegiving, and leadership in strategic organizational development. Advances in Qualitative Organizational Development, 2, 37-71.
Bettiol, M., Maria, E.D., & Finotto, V. (2012). Marketing in SMEs: The role of entrepreneurial sensemaking. International Entrepreneurship and management Journal, 8, pp. 223- 248.
Beyer, J.M. & Hannah, D.R. (2002). Building on the past: Enacting established personal identities in a new work setting. Organization Science, 13 (6), pp. 636-652.
Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13 (3), pp. 442-453.
Bruderl, J. & Schussler, R. (1990). Organizational mortality: The liabilities of newness and adolescence. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35 (3), pp. 530-547.
Chrisman, J.J., Bauerschmidt, A., & Hofer, C.W. (1998). The determinants of new venture performance: An extended model. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Fall, pp. 5- 29.
Cliff, J.E. (1998). Does one size fit all? Exploring the relationship between attitudes towards growth, gender, and business size. Journal of Business Venturing, 13 (6), pp. 523-542.
Cornelissen, J.P. & Clarke, J.S. (2010). Imagining and rationalizing opportunities: Inductive reasoning and creation and justification of new ventures. Academy of Management Review, 35 (4), 539- 557.
Craig-Lees, M. (2001). Sense making: Trojan horse? Pandora's box? Psychology & Marketing, 18 (5), pp. 513-526.
Daft, R.L. & Weick, K.E. (1984). Toward a model of organizations as interpretation systems. Academy of Management Review, 2, pp. 284-295.
Davidsson, P. (1989). Entrepreneurship - and after? A study of growth willingness in small firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 4 (3), pp. 211-226.
Delmar, F., Davidsson, P., & Gartner, W.B. (2003). Arriving at the high- growth firm. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, pp. 189-216.
Diaz-Casero, J.C., Ferreira, J.J.M., Mogollon, R.H., & Raposo, M.L.B. (2012). Influence of institutional environment on entrepreneurial intention: A comparative study of two countries university students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 8, 55- 74.
Doern, R. (2011). Understanding how perceived barriers influence growth intentions and behaviors: Accounts from small business owner-managers in Russia. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 17 (5), pp. 488-514.
Draucker, C.B., Martsolf, D.S., Ross, R., & Rusk, T.B. (2007). Theoretical sampling and category development in grounded theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17, pp. 1137-1148.
Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14, pp. 532-550.
Gilbert, B.A., McDougall, P.P., & Audretsch, D.B. (2006). New venture growth: A review and extension. Journal of Management, 32 (6), pp. 926-950.
Gioia, D.A. & Chittipeddi, K. (1991). Sensemaking and sensegiving in strategic change initiation. Strategic Management Journal, 12 (6), pp. 433-446.
Glaser, B. (1992). Basics of grounded theory analysis: Emergence vs. forcing. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine.
Hill, R.C. & Levenhagen, M. (1995). Metaphors and mental models: Sensemaking and sensegiving in innovative and entrepreneurial activities. Journal of Management, 21 (6), pp. 1057- 1074.
Jick, T.D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 602-661.
Labianca, G., Gray, B., & Brass, D.J. (2000). A grounded model of organizational schema change during empowerment. Organization Science, 11 (2), pp. 235-257.
Lau, C. & Woodman, R.W. (1995). Understanding organizational change: A schematic perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 38 (20), pp. 537-554.
Lee, L., Wong, P.K., Foo, M.D., & Leung, A. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions: the influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26, pp. 124-136.
Linan, F., Santos, F., & Fernandez, J. 2011. The influence of perceptions on potential entrepreneurs. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7 (3), 373-390.
Maitlis, S. & Lawrence, T.B. (2007). Triggers and enablers of sensegiving in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, I50 (1), pp. 57-84.
Martin, P.Y. & Turner, B.A. (1986). Grounded theory and organizational research. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 22 (2), pp. 141-157.
Orlikowski, W.J. (1993). CASE tools as organizational change: Investigating incremental and radical changes in systems development. MIS Quarterly, 17 (3), pp. 309-340.
Palich, L.E. & Bagby, D.R. (1995). Using cognitive theory to explain entrepreneurial risk-taking: Challenging conventional wisdom. Journal of Business Venturing, 10, pp. 425-438.
Pettigrew, A. M. (1987). Context and action in the transformation of the firm. Journal of Management Studies, 24 (6), pp. 649-670.
Sandberg, W.R. & Hofer, C.W. (1987). Improving new venture performance: The role of strategy, industry structure, and the entrepreneur. Journal of Business Venturing, 2 (1), pp. 5-28.
Smallbone, D., Leigh, R., & North, D. (1995). The characteristics and strategies of high growth SMEs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 1 (3), pp. 44-62.
Sommer, L. & Haug, M. 2011. Intention as a cognitive antecedent to international entrepreneurship - understanding the moderating roles of knowledge and experience. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7 (1), 111- 142.
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Vaghely, I.P. & Julien, P. (2010). Are opportunities recognized or constructed? An information perspective on entrepreneurial opportunity identification. Journal of Business Venturing, 25, pp. 73- 86.
Vinnell, R. & Hamilton, R.T. (1999). A historical perspective on small firm development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23 (4), pp. 5-18.
Weick, K. (1995), Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Weick, K.E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.