Dilettante, Venturesome, Troy, and Crafts: Drivers of Performance among Taxonomic Groups

  • Jane S. Craig University of Texas at Austin
  • Stanley W. Mandel Wake Forest University
  • Alex Stewart

Abstract

Empirical research has failed to cumulate into a coherent taxonomy of small firms. This may be because the method adapted from biology by Bill McKelvey has almost never been adopted. His approach calls for extensive variables and a focused sample of organizations, contrary to most empirical studies, which are specialized. Comparing general and special purpose approaches, we find some of the latter have more explanatory power than others and that general purpose taxonomies have the greatest explanatory power. Examining performance, we find the types do not display significantly different levels of performance but they display highly varied drivers of performance. This manuscript was invited due to its foundational nature that underpins research in this domain.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aldrich, H. & Ruef, M. (2006). Organizations Evolving, Second Edition. London: Sage.

Anderson, J. (2012). A resource-based taxonomy of manufacturing MSMEs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 18(1), 98-122.

Aragón-Sánchez, A. & Sánchez-Marín. G. (2005). Strategic orientation, management characteristics, and performance: A study of Spanish SMEs. Journal of Small Business Management, 43: 287-308.

Autio, E. (1995). Four types of innovators: a conceptual and empirical study of new, technology-based companies as innovators. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 7: 233-248.

Bailey, K. D. (1994). Typologies and Taxonomies. Newbury Park CA: Sage.

Barney, J. B. & Hoskisson R. E. (1990). Strategic groups: untested assertions and research proposals. Managerial and Decision Economics 11: 187-198.

Baum, M., Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2011). A typology of international new ventures: Empirical evidence from high-technology industries. Journal of Small Business Management 49, 305-330.

Brinkmann, J, Grichnik D., & Kapsa, D. (2010). Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning-performance relationship in small firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 25: 24-40.

Burns, T. & Stalker, G. M. (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.

Carland, J. W., Hoy, F., Boulton, W. R., & Carland, C. J. (1984). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: a conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 9: 354-359.

Capetta, M., D'Odorico, V. D., Cristiani, S., Saitta, F., & Viel, M. (2010). High-resolution spectroscopy of the 3D cosmic web with close QSO groups. Monthly Notes of the Royal Astronomical Society, 407, 1290-1300.

Chaston, I. (2008). Small creative industry firms: A development dilemma? Management Decision, 46(6), 819-831.

Chell, E. & Haworth, J. M. (1992). The competitive performance of SMEs in the UK clothing industry. International Small Business Journal 10(3): 11-24.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient Alpha and the internal structure of tests, Psychometrica 16: 297-334.

Clark, D., Berkeley, N., & Steuer, N. (2001). Attitudes to growth among owners of small and medium-sized enterprises and the implications for business advice: Some evidence from the clothing industry in Coventry, International Small Business Journal 19(3): 72-77.

Clarysse, B., Knockaert, M., & Lockett, A. (2007). Outside board members in high tech start-ups. Small Business Economics, 29: 243-259.

Coleman, S. (2002). Constraints faced by women small business owners: Evidence from the data. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(2), 151-173.

Covin, J. G. (1991). Entrepreneurial versus conservative firms: a comparison of strategies and performance. Journal of Management Studies, 28: 439-462.

Covin, J. G., Slevin, D. P. & Covin, T. J. (1990). Content and performance of growth-seeking strategies: a comparison of small firms in high and low-technology industries, Journal of Business Venturing 5: 391-412.

Craig, J. S. (1991). Entrepreneurial typology for manufacturer of women' and children's apparel and accessories, and assessment of success characteristics of entrepreneurs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University.

de Queiroz, K. & Good D. A. (1997). Phenetic clustering in biology: A critique, The Quarterly Review of Biology 72: 3-30.

Dess, G. & Robinson Jr., R. B. (1984). Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures, Strategic Management Journal 5: 265-273.

Doty, D. H., Glick, W. H., & Huber, G. P. (1993). Fit, equifinality, and organizational effectiveness: a test of two configurational theories, Academy of Management Journal 36: 1196-1250.

D'Souza, R. & Kemelgor, B. (2008/2009). Does expertise matter in an ever-changing and uncertain environment? A study of the entrepreneurial process of serial and novice entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 19(2), 69-87.

Dyer, L. M. & Ross, C. A. (2007). Advising the small business client. International Small Business Journal, 25(2), 130-151.

Filley, A. C. & Aldag R. J. (1978). Characteristics and measurement of an organizational typology, Academy of Management Journal 21: 578-591.

Fillis, I. (2002). The internationalization process of the craftmicroenterprise. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(1), 25-43.

Fiss, P. C. (2011). Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research, Academy of Management Journal 54: 393-420.

Fletcher, D. (2011). A curiosity for contexts: Entrepreneurship, enactive research and autoethnography, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 23: 65-76.

Fletcher, D. & Hardill, I. (1995). Value-adding competitive strategies: A comparison of clothing SMEs case studies in France and Great Britain, International Small Business Journal 14(1): 33-52.

Frank, H. (1993). Small-business owners and consultants: An empirical analysis of their relationship, Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 10(4): 32-43.

Freeman, J. (1986). Data quality and the development of organizational social science: an editorial essay, Administrative Science Quarterly 30:1-6.

Gartner, W. B., Mitchell, T. R., & Vesper, K. H. (1989). A taxonomy of new business ventures, Journal of Business Venturing 4: 169-186.

Guttiérrez, L., Franco, J., Crossa, J., & Abadie, T. (2003). Comparing a preliminary racial classification with a numerical classification of the maize landraces of Uruguay. Plant Science, 43(2), 718-727.

Harms, R., Kraus, S., & Schwarz, E. (2009). The suitability of the configuration approach in entrepreneurship research, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 21: 25-49.

Hartnell, C. A., Ou, A. Y., & Kinicki, A. (2011). Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: A meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions, Journal of Applied Psychology 96: 677-694.

Hass, J. E., Hall, R. H., & Johnson, N. J. (1966). Towards an empirically derived taxonomy of organizations, in Studies on Behaviour in Organizations, Ed. R. V. Bowers, Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 157-180.

Hornburg, C., Workman Jr., J. P., & Jensen, O. (2002). A configurational perspective on key account management, Journal of Marketing 66(2): 38-60.

Hung, S.-C., Liu, N.-C., & Chang, J.-B. (2003). The taxonomy and evolution of technology strategies: A study of Taiwan's high-technology-based firms, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 50: 219-227.

Jambulingam, T., Kathuria, R., & Doucette, W. R. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation as a basis for classification within a service industry: The case of retail pharmacy industry, Journal of Operations Management 23: 23-42.

Joyner, A. (2005). Montana develops creative ways to educate creative people. Montana Business Quarterly, 43(2), 6-11.

Ketchen Jr., D. J., Coombs, J. G., Russell, C. J., Shook, S.,. Dean, M. A., Runge, J., Lohrke, F. T., Naumann, S. E., Haptonstahl, D. E., Baker, R., Beckstein, B. A., Handler, D., Honig, H., & Lamoureux, S. (1997). Organizational configurations and performance: a meta-analysis, Academy of Management Journal 40: 223-240.

Khan, A. M. & Manopichetwattana V., (1989). Models for distinguishing innovative and non-innovative small firms, Journal of Business Venturing 4: 187-196.

Korunka, C., Frank, H., Lueger, M., & Mugler, J. (2003). The entrepreneurial personality in the context of resources, environment, and the startup process - A configurational approach, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 28(1), 23-42.

Lafuente, A., & Salas, V. (1989). Types of entrepreneurs and firms: the case of new Spanish ventures, Strategic Management Journal 10: 17-30.

Leask, G. & Parker, D. (2007). Strategic groups, competitive groups and performance within the U.K. pharmaceutical industry: Improving our understanding of the competitive process, Strategic Management Journal 28: 723-745.

Lee, S.-S. & Denslow, D. (2005). A study on the major problems of U.S. women-owned small businesses. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 15(2), 77-89.

Lumpkin, G. T. & Dess, G. G. (1996). "Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance," Academy of Management Review 21: 135-172.

Mandel, S. W. (1996). Organization taxonomy: Searching for performance while solving the problems of polythetic classification. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University.

McKelvey, B. (1975). Guidelines for the empirical classification of organizations, Administrative Science Quarterly 20: 509-525.

McKelvey, B. (1982). Organizational Systematics: Taxonomy, Evolution, Classification. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

McKelvey, B. (1978). "Organizational systematics: taxonomic lessons from biology," Management Science 24(S): 1428-1440.

McNamara, G., Deephouse, D. L., & Luce, R. A. (2003). "Competitive positioning within and across a strategic group structure: The performance of core, secondary, and solitary firms," Strategic Management Journal 24: 161-181.

Miles, R. E. & Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. New York: McGraw Hill.

Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms, Management Science 29: 770-791.

Miller, D. (1996). Configurations revisited, Strategic Management Journal 17: 505-512.

Miller, D. (2011). Miller (1983) revisited: A reflection on EO research and some suggestions for the future, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 35: 873-894.

Miller, D. & Friesen, P. H. (1984). Organizations: A Quantum View. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Milligan, G.W. & Cooper, M. C. (1985). An examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set, Psychometrica 50: 159-179.

Miner, J. B. (1997). A psychological typology and its relationship to entrepreneurial success, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 9: 319-334.

Montobbio, F. (2003). Sectoral patterns of technological activity and export market share dynamics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27(4), 523-545.

Moreno, J. de J., Castillo, L. L., & Masere, E. de Z. (2007). Influence of entrepreneur type, region and sector effects in business self-confidence: Empirical evidence from Argentine firms, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 19: 25-48.

Morris, M., Schindehutte, M., Richardson, J., & Allen, J. (2006). Is the business model a useful strategic concept? Conceptual, theoretical, and empirical insights. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 17(1), 27-50.

Paige, R. C. (2009). Profiles of successful craftmicro-retailers. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 14(4), 393-412.

Pereira-Moliner, Claver-Cortés, J., E., & J. F. Molina-Azorín (2011). Explaining the strategic groups-firm performance relationship: A multilevel approach applied to small and medium-sized hotel companies in Spain, Journal of Small Business Management 49: 411-437.

Perry, W. B., Christiansen, T. A., & Perry, S. A. (1997). Response of soil and leaf litter microarthropods to forest application of diflubenzuron. Ecotoxicology, 6(2), 87-99.

Pinto, P. R. & Pinder, C. C. (1972). A cluster analytic approach to the study of organizations, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance 8: 408-422.

Popescu, S. C., Wynne, R. H., & Scrivani, J. A. (2004). Fusion of small-footprint lidar and multispectral data to estimate plot-level volume and biomass in deciduous and pine forests in Virginia, USA. Forest Science, 50(4), 551-565.

Rich, P. (1992). The organizational taxonomy: definition and design, Academy of Management Review 17: 782-807.

Roininen, S., and Ylinenpää, H. (2009). Schumpeterian versus Kirznerian entrepreneurship: A comparison of academic and non-academic new venturing, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 16: 504-520.

Rosenberg, N. A. (2007). Statistical tests for taxonomic distinctiveness from observations of monophyly. Evolution, 61(2), 317-323.

Sanchez, J. C. (1993). The long and thorny way to an organizational taxonomy, Organization Studies 14: 74-92.

Sapienza, H. J., Smith, K. G., & Gannon, M. J. (1988). Using subjective evaluations of organizational performance in small business research, American Journal of Small Business 12(3): 45-53.

Shane, S., Kolvereid, L., & Westhead, P. (1991). An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new firm formation across country and gender, Journal of Business Venturing 6: 431-446.

Short, J. C., Payne, G. T., & Ketchen Jr., D. J. (2008.) Research on organizational configurations: Past accomplishments and future challenges, Journal of Management 34: 1053-1079.

Slater, S. F., & Olson, E. M. (2000). Strategy type and performance: The influence of sales force management, Strategic Management Journal 21: 813-829.

Smith, N. R. (1967). The Entrepreneur and his Firm: The Relationship between Type of Man and Type of Company. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Smith, N. R. & Miner, J. B. (1983). Type of entrepreneur, type of firm, and managerial motivation: implications for organizational life cycle theory, Strategic Management Journal 4: 325-340.

Sneath, P. H. & Sokal, R. R. (1973). Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Soldressen, L. S., Fiorito, S. S., & He, Y. (1998). An exploration into home-based businesses: data from textile artists, Journal of Small Business Management 36(2), 33-44.

Stewart, A. & Hitt, M. A. (2012). Why can't a family business be more like a non-family business? Modes of professionalization in family firms. Family Business Review 25: 60-88.

Steyaert, C. & J. Katz (2004). Reclaiming the space of entrepreneurship in society: Geographical, discursive and social dimensions, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 16: 179-196.

Thomas, A. S., Litschert, R. J., & Ramaswamy, K. (1991). The performance impact of strategy-manager coalignment: An empirical examination, Strategic Management Journal 12: 509-522.

Timmons, J. A. (1999). New Venture Creation, 5th ed. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Tinkelman, S. N. (1971). Planning the objective test, in Educational Measurement, 2nd ed. Ed. in R. L. Thorndike. American Council on Education: Washington, DC, 46-80.

Tregear, A. (2005). Lifestyle, growth, or community involvement? The balance of goals of UK artisan food producers, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 17: 1-15.

Ulrich, D. & McKelvey, B. (1990). General organizational classification: an empirical test using the United States and Japanese electronics industries, Organization Science 1: 99-118.

Westhead, P. (1990). A typology of new manufacturing firm founders in Wales: performance measures and public policy implications, Journal of Business Venturing 9: 7-31.

Westhead, P. & Howorth, C. (2007). 'Types' of private family firms: An exploratory conceptual and empirical analysis, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 19: 405-431.

Williams, C. C. (2010). Spatial variation in the hidden enterprise culture: Some lessons from England, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 22: 403-423.

Wong, M. A. & Schaack, C. (1982). Using the Kth nearest neighbor clustering procedure to determine the number of subpopulations, American Statistical Association Proceedings of the Statistical Computing Section: 40-48.

Woo, C. Y., Cooper, A. C., & Dunkelberg, W. C. (1991). The development and interpretation of entrepreneurial typologies, Journal of Business Venturing 6: 93-114.

Zahra, S. A. & Pearce II J. A. (1990). Research evidence on the Miles-Snow typology, Journal of Management 16: 751-768.

Zahra, S. A., Neubaum, D. O. & Naldi. L. (2007). The effects of ownership and governance on SMEs' international knowledge-based resources, Small Business Economics, 29: 309-327
Published
2011-05-21
How to Cite
CRAIG, Jane S.; MANDEL, Stanley W.; STEWART, Alex. Dilettante, Venturesome, Troy, and Crafts: Drivers of Performance among Taxonomic Groups. Journal of Small Business Strategy, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 2, p. 1-26, may 2011. ISSN 2380-1751. Available at: <https://libjournals.mtsu.edu/index.php/jsbs/article/view/158>. Date accessed: 15 june 2019.
Section
Articles