Female & Male Entrepreneurs' Perceived Value of Formal Networks: Are There Differences?

  • Debra S. Malewicki University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
  • Cathleen A. (Folker) Leitch Wilfrid Laurier University


Since entrepreneurs play a crucial role in job creation, and evidence suggests that networks play an important role in both facilitating new businesses and helping existing businesses grow, a strong incentive exists to better understand and support entrepreneurial network development. In this study, we examine the differential values perceived by female and male entrepreneurs of entrepreneurial network organizations (ENOs). Women perceived a higher economic benefit (instrumental value) from the network than men, as well as a higher affective value. There were no significant differences on perceived normative value from ENO's.


Download data is not yet available.


Acs, Z. (1996). Innovation: Largely the Work of Small Firms, The Small Business Advocate, (October), 11.

Aldrich, H. (1989). Networking among women entrepreneurs. In O. Hagen, C. Rivchun, & D. Sexton (Eds.), Women-Owned Businesses, (pp. 103-132). New York: Praeger.

Aldrich, H., and Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship Through Social Networks. In Sexton, D.L. and Smilor, R.W. (Eds.), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co.

Allen, N. J. and Meyer, J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.

Araujo, L. and Easton, G. (1996). Networks in socioeconomic systems: A critical review, in Iacobucci, D., ed. Networks in Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Armstrong, J. and Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys, Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 396-402.

Bass, B. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press.

Bird, B. and Brush, C. (2002). A gendered perspective on organizational creation, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26 (3), 41-65.

Brush, C. (1990). C. G. Women and enterprise creation: Barriers and opportunities. In S. Gould and J. Parzen (Eds.) Enterprising women: Local initiatives for job creation (pp. 150-172). Paris: OECD.

Brush, C. (1992). Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective and future directions, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16 (4), 5-30.

Brush, C., Green, P., & Hart, M. (2001). From initial idea to unique advantage: The entrepreneurial challenge of constructing a resource base. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 15(1): 64-78.

Burt R. S. (1992). The social structure of competition. In: Nohria, N., Eccles, R. G. (Eds.) Networks and Organizations.

Buttner, H. (2001). Examining female entrepreneurs' management style: An application of a relational frame. Journal of Business Ethics, 29 (3), 253-270.

Bygrave, W. and Minniti, M. (2000). The social dynamics of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 24(3), 25-42.

Carter, N. M. , Gartner W. B., Shaver K. G. and Gatewood, E. J. (2003). The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 13-39.

Center for Women's Business Research (2000). Leaders in business and community: The philanthropic contributions of women and men business owners.

Center for Women's Business Research (2008). Key facts about women-owned businesses http://www.womensbusinessresearchcenter.org/research/keyfacts/ accessed March 15, 2012.

Davidsson, P. and Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing 18 (3), 301-323.

DeMartino R., and Barbato, R. (2003). Differences between men and women MBA entrepreneurs: exploring family flexibility and wealth creation as career motivators, Journal of Business Venturing 18, 815-832.

Diaz Garcia, M.C. & Carter, S. (2009). Resource Mobilization through business owners' networks: is gender an issue? International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(3): 226-252.

Fielden, S., Davidson, M., Dawe, A., and Makin, P. (2003). Factors inhibiting the economic growth of female owned small businesses in North West England. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(2), 152-166.

Fitzgerald, M.A. and Folker, C.A. (2005). Exploring New Frontiers in Women's Family Business Leadership: The Impact of Women's Motivations on Family and Business Measures of Success. International Journal of Family Business, 2, 1-11. .

Fitzgerald, M., Philbrick, C., and Folker, C. (2008). Continuation of the Family-Owned Business: The Influence of Gender and Help-Seeking Behavior. Proceedings of the International Council for Small Business Annual Conference (ICSB).

Foss, L. (2010). Research on entrepreneur networks: the case for a constructivist feminist theory perspective. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1): 83-102.

Garbarino, E. and Johnson, M. (1999). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. Journal of Marketing, 63 (April), 70-87.

Gatewood, E. J. (2004), Entrepreneurial expectancies. In W. B. Gartner, K.G. Shaver, N.M. Carter and P. D. Reynolds (Eds.) Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (pp 153-162), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Gatewood, E., Brush, C., Carter, N., Greene, P., & Hart, M. (2009). Diana: a symbol of women entrepreneurs' hunt for knowledge, money, and the rewards of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32:129-144.

Godwin, L., Stevens, C., and Brenner, N. (2006). Forced to play by the rules? Theorizing how mixed-sex founding teams benefit women entrepreneurs in male-dominated contexts, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30 (5), 623- 638.

Gray, B. (1994), The gender-based foundations of negotiation theory. Research on Negotiations in Organizations, 4, 3-36.

Gruen, T., Summers, J. and Acito, F. (2000). Relationship marketing activities, commitment, and membership behaviors in professional associations. Journal of Marketing, 64 (3), 34-49.

Gundlach, G., Achrol,R. and Mentzer, J. (1995). The structure of commitment in exchange. Journal of Marketing, 59 (1), 78-92.

Gupta, V., Turban, D., Wasti, S., and Sikdar A. (2009). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and the intentions to become an entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(2), 397-417.

Gurley-Calvez, T., Harper, K., and Biehl, A., (2009). Self-employed women and time use. U.S. Small Business Administration study, www.sba.gov/advo/research/rs341tot.pdf

Hampton, A., Cooper, S., & McGowan, P. (2009). Female Entrepreneurial Networks and Networking Activity in Technology-based Ventures. International Small Business Journal, 27(2): 193-214.

Hansen, E. (1995). Entrepreneurial networks and new organization growth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 19 (2), 7-19.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R. and Black, W. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hisrich, R. D. , and Brush C. (1984). The woman entrepreneurs: Management skills and business problems. Journal of Small Business Management, 22 (1), 30-37.

Hoang, H, and B. Antoncic (2003). Network-based research in entrepreneurship: a critical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 18 (2), 165-187.

Hood, J. N.and Thompson, J. K. (1994). Care and Connection: A Study of Gender Differences in Charitable Contributions of Small Businesses. Journal of Business & Entrepreneurship, 6(2), 73-89.

Honig, B. and Davidsson, P. (2000). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Paper presented at the Academy of Management, Toronto, Canada.

Ibarra, H., (1992), Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 422- 447.

Iyer, G.R. and Shapiro, J. M. (1999). Ethnic entrepreneurial and marketing systems: Implications for the global economy. Journal of International Marketing, 7 (4), 83-110.

Jack, S. (2010). Approaches to studying networks: Implications and outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 25:120-137.

Johannisson, B. (2000). Networking and entrepreneurial growth, in Sexton, D. L. and Landstrom,H. Eds., The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, Inc.

Johannisson, B. and Monsted, M. (1997). Contextualizing entrepreneurial networking: The case of Scandinavia. International Studies of Management and Organization, 27 (3), 109-136.

Kamm, J. and Nurick, A. (1993). The stages of team venture formation: A decision making model. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17 (2), 417-428.

King, S. Townsend, A. and Ockels , C. (2007), Intuit Future of Small Business Report (2007) www.intuit.com/futureofsmallbusiness

Klyver, K. & Grant, S. (2010). Gender differences in entrepreneurial networking and participation. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(3); 213-227.

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M.D., and Carsrud, A. L.(2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 411-432.

Langowitz, N., and Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31 (3), 341-364.

Larson, A. (1992). Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: A study of the governance of exchange relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 761-774.

Lechler, T. (2001). Social interaction: A determinant of entrepreneurial team venture success. Small Business Economics , 16 (4), 263- 284.

Lee, S., & Denslow, D. (2005). A study on the major problems of U.S. women-owned small businesses. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 15(2): 77-89.

Litz, R.A. & Folker, C.A. (2002). When He and She Sell Seashells: Exploring the Relationship Between Management Team Gender-Balance and Small Firm Performance. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(4): 341-359.

Malecki, E. and Tootle, D. M. (1996). The Role of Networks in Small Firm Competitiveness. International Journal of Technology Management, 11 (1/2), 43-57.

Manolova, T., Carter N., Manev I., and Gyoshev, B. (2007). The differential effect of men and women entrepreneurs' human capital and networking on growth expectancies in Bulgaria. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 31 (3), 407-426.

McAuley, A. (1999). Entrepreneurial Instant Exporters in the Scottish Arts and Crafts Sector. Journal of International Marketing, 7 (4), 67-82.

McKay, R. (2001). Women Entrepreneurs: moving beyond family and flexibility. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 7(4), 148-165.

McKendrick, D.C. and Carroll, G.R. (2001). On the genesis of organizational forms: Evidence from the market for disk arrays. Organization Science, 12 (6), 661-682.

Miller, N., Besser, T., & Riibe, J. (2006/2007). Do Strategic Business Networks Benefit Male- and Female-Owned Small Community Businesses? Journal of Small Business Strategy, 17(2); 53-74.

Minniti, M., Arenius, P. and Langowitz, N. (2005). 2004 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor special topic report: Women and entrepreneurship. Babson Park, MA: Center for Women's Leadership at Babson College.

Moore, D. & Buttner, E.H. (1997). Women Entrepreneurs: Moving beyond the glass ceiling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Munro, Hugh (1997). The Role of Business Networks in Enhancing the Product Development Activities of Entrepreneurial Forms, in G. Hills, J. Giglierano, and C. Hultman (Eds.), Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface, 621-637.

NCOE, National Commission on Entrepreneurship (2000). Building Companies, Building Communities: Entrepreneurs in the New Economy. www.ncoe.org.

Ozgen, E. and Baron,R. A. (2007). Social sources of information on opportunity recognition: Effects of mentors, industry networks, and professional forums, Journal of Business Venturing (22) 174-192

Pages, E. and Garmise, S. (2001). Building Entrepreneurial Networks. National Commission on Entrepreneurship, Washington, D.C.

Pedhazur, E., & Schmelkin, L. (1991). Measurement, Design, and Analysis: An Integrated Approach. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, New Jersey.

Renzulli L.A.and Aldrich, H. (2005). Who can you turn to? Tie activation within core business discussion networks. Social Forces, 84 (1), 323-341.

Robb, A. (1998). New Data for Analysis of Small Firm Job Creation in The State of Small Business, 1998. U.S. Small Business Administration Office of Advocacy.

Robb, A., & Coleman, S. (2009) Sources of Financing for New Technology Firms: A Comparison by Gender. Kauffman Firm Survey.

Robinson, S., and Stubberud, H. A. (2009). Sources of Advice in Entrepreneurship: Gender Differences in Business Owners' Social Networks. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 13:83-101.

Robinson, S., and Stubberud, H.A. (2011). Social Networks and Entrepreneurial Growth. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 15(4):65-70.

Ruef, M., Aldrich H. E. and Carter N. M. (2003), The structure of organizational and funding teams: Homophily, strong ties, and isolation among U.S. entrepreneurs. American Sociological Review, 68 (2), 195-222.

Scott, C. E. (1986). Why more women are becoming entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management. 24(4). 37-44,

Shaw, E. (1999). Networks and Their Relevance to the Entrepreneurial/Marketing

Interface: A Review of the Evidence. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 1 (1), 24-40.

Sheth, J. and Parvatiyar, A. (1995). Relationship Marketing in Consumer Markets: Antecedents and Consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23 (4), 235-271.

Singh, R. P., Hills, G.E. ,Hybels, R. and Lumpkin, G. T. (1999). Opportunity Recognition Through Social Network Characteristics. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson Proceedings.

Sivadas, E. and Dwyer, E. F. (2000). An Examination of Organizational Factors Influencing New Product Success in Internal and Alliance Based Processes. Journal of Marketing, 64, 31-49.

Sorenson, R., Folker, C., and Brigham, K. (2008). The collaborative network orientation: Achieving business success through collaborative relationships. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32 (4), 615-634.

Stinchcombe, A. L. (1965). Social Structure and Organizations. In James G. March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Welch, D. E., Welch, L. , Young, L. and. Wilkinson, I. (1998). The Importance of Networks in Export Promotion: Policy Issues. Journal of International Marketing, (4) 6, 66- 82.
How to Cite
MALEWICKI, Debra S.; LEITCH, Cathleen A. (Folker). Female & Male Entrepreneurs' Perceived Value of Formal Networks: Are There Differences?. Journal of Small Business Strategy, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 1, p. 1-20, may 2011. ISSN 2380-1751. Available at: <https://libjournals.mtsu.edu/index.php/jsbs/article/view/152>. Date accessed: 24 july 2019.