Business Incubators: Leveraging Skill Utilization through Social Capital
AbstractThis study examines the role that social capital among tenant companies of a business incubator plays in the acquisition and utilization of business skills by those companies. Social capital is a resource derived from the structure and content of social relations among individuals or groups. Questionnaire data were gathered from 53 managers (primarily owners) of tenant companies in five incubators established by the State Privatization Office of the Turkish Republic. As hypothesized, relational social capital and cognitive social capital each had a significant unique and positive relationship with skill utilization. Contrary to a hypothesis, structural social capital did not have a significant unique relationship with skill utilization. These results indicate that incubator tenant companies' skill utilization is enhanced by social capital generated from the content of relations between the companies such as whether they trust and identify with each other and whether they share a common language and perspective.
Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27, 17-40.
Allen, D. N., & Rahman, S. (1985). Small business incubators: A positive environment for entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 23, 12-22.
Allen, M. P. (1997). Understanding regression analysis. New York: Plenum Press.
Anderson, M. H. (2008). Social networks and the cognitive motivation to realize network opportunities: A study of managers' information gathering behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 51-78.
Bolino, M. C., Turnley, W. H., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2002). Citizenship behavior and the creation of social capital in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 27, 505-522.
Bollingtoft, A., & Ulhoi, J. P. (2005). The networked business incubator. leveraging entrepreneurial agency? Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 265-290.
Buche, M. W., & Scillitoe, J. L. (2007). Influence of gender and social networks on organizational learning within technology incubators. Mid-American Journal of Business, 22, 59-67.
Burt, R. S. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 339-365.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cooke, P., Clifton, N., & Oleaga, M. (2005). Social capital, firm embeddedness and regional development. Regional Studies, 39, 1065-1077.
De Carolis, D. M., & Saparito, P. (2006). Social capital, cognition, and entrepreneurial opportunities: A theoretical framework. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30, 2006.
De Vaus, D. A. (2002). Analyzing social science data: 50 key problems in data analysis. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Dyer, J. H., & Chu, W. (2003). The role of trustworthiness in reducing transaction costs and improving performance: Empirical evidence from the United States, Japan, and Korea. Organizational Science, 14, 57-68.
Grant, R. M. (1996). Knowledge, strategy, and the theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 109-122.
Hackett, S. M. & Dilts, D. M. (2004). A systematic review of business incubation research. Journal of Technology Transfer, 29, 55-82.
Hair, J. F., Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1992). Multivariate data analysis (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Hite, J. M., & Hesterly, W. S. (2001). The evolution of firm networks: From emergence to early growth of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 275-286.
Inkpen, A. C., & Tsang, E. W. K. (2005). Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Review, 30, 146-165.
Kiffin-Petersen, S.A,. & Cordery, J. (2003). Trust, individualism and job characteristics as predictors of employee preference for teamwork. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14, 93-116.
Liao, J., & Welsch, H. (2005). Roles of social capital in venture creation: Key dimensions and research implications. Journal of Small Business Management, 43, 345-362.
Lyons, T. S. (2002). Building social capital for rural enterprise development: Three case studies in the United States. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7, 193-216.
Maurer, I., & Ebers, M. (2006). Dynamics of social capital and their performance implications: Lessons from biotechnology start-ups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, 262-292.
McFadyen, M. A., & Cannella, A. A., Jr. (2004). Social capital and knowledge creation: Diminishing returns of the number and strength of exchange relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 735-746.
Moran, P. (2005). Structural vs. relational embeddedness: Social capital and managerial performance. Strategic Management Journal, 26, 1129-1151.
Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23, 242-266.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Peters, L., Rice, M., & Sundararajan, M. (2004). The role of incubators in the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Technology Transfer, 29, 83-91.
Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R., & Sullivan, J. J. (2003). Making sense of factor analysis: The use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Phan, P. H., Siegel, D. S., & Wright, M. (2005). Science parks and incubators: Observations, synthesis, and future research. Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 165-182.
Reagans, R., & McEvily, B. (2003). Network structure and knowledge transfer: The effects of cohesion and range. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48, 240-267.
Rice, M. P. (2002). Co-production of business assistance in business incubators: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 163-187.
Rowley, T., Behrens, D., & Krackhardt, D. (2000). Redundant governance structures: An analysis of structural and relational embeddedness in the steel and semiconductor industries. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 369-386.
Smith, D. M. (2000). Women at work: Leadership for the next century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Smith, D. A., & Lohrke, F. T. (2008). Entrepreneurial network development: Trusting in the process. Journal of Business Research, 61, 315-322.
Spence, L. J., Schmidpeter, R., & Habisch, A. (2003). Assessing social capital: Small and medium sized enterprises in Germany and the U.K. Journal of Business Ethics, 47, 17-29.
Subramaniam, M., & Youndt, M. A. (2005). The influence of intellectual social capital on the type of innovative capabilities. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 450-463.
von Eye, A., & Schuster, C. (1998). Regression analysis for the social sciences. San Diego, Academic Press.
Walter, J., Lechner, C., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2007). Knowledge transfer between and within alliance partners: Private versus collective benefits of social capital. Journal of Business Research, 60, 698-710.
Wasko, M. M., & Faraj, S. (2005). Why should I share? Examining social capital and knowledge contributions in electronic networks of practice. MIS Quarterly, 29, 35-57.
Wu, W. (2008). Dimensions of social capital and firm competitive improvement: The mediating role of information sharing. Journal of Management Studies, 45, 122-146.
Yli-Yenko, H., Autio, E., & Sapienza, H. J. (2001). Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technologybased firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 587-613.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.