Entrepreneurial Orientation as the Determinant of Entrepreneurial Marketing Behaviors
Although entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviors are widely reported, there is little discussion on what determines the level of a firm’s behaviors. This study contributes to the knowledge in the fields of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial marketing by proposing EO, entrepreneurial orientation, as an antecedent of EM behaviors and arguing that EO acts as a multidimensional construct when affecting EM behaviors. The relationships between EO and EM behaviors are empirically investigated using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. Results from the analyses support the hypothesis that EM behaviors are driven by EO. Firms with a higher level of EO engaged in EM behaviors more than firms with a lower level of EO. At the dimension level, innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking are found to independently affect EM behaviors. With innovativeness having the strongest impact, this study concludes that innovativeness is the leading essence of EM behaviors. The results support a new consensus among entrepreneurship research scholars who suggest a direction toward multidimensional EO.