Entrepreneurial Orientation as the Determinant of Entrepreneurial Marketing Behaviors

Pitsamorn Kilenthong, Claes M. Hultman, Gerald E. Hills


Although entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviors are widely reported, there is little discussion on what determines the level of a firm’s behaviors. This study contributes to the knowledge in the fields of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial marketing by proposing EO, entrepreneurial orientation, as an antecedent of EM behaviors and arguing that EO acts as a multidimensional construct when affecting EM behaviors. The relationships between EO and EM behaviors are empirically investigated using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. Results from the analyses support the hypothesis that EM behaviors are driven by EO. Firms with a higher level of EO engaged in EM behaviors more than firms with a lower level of EO. At the dimension level, innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking are found to independently affect EM behaviors. With innovativeness having the strongest impact, this study concludes that innovativeness is the leading essence of EM behaviors. The results support a new consensus among entrepreneurship research scholars who suggest a direction toward multidimensional EO. 

Full Text:



Atuahene-Gima, K., & Ko, A. (2001). An empirical investigation of the effect of market orientation and entrepreneurship orientation alignment on product innovation. Organization Science, 12(1), 54-74.

Bjerke, B., & Hultman, C. (2002). Entrepreneurial marketing: The growth of small firms in the new economic era. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Edgar.

Brockhaus, R. (1980). Risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs. The Academy of Management Journal, 23(3), 509–520.

Buskirk, B., & Lavik M. (2004). Entrepreneurial marketing: Real stories and survival strategies. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.

Carrillat, F. A., Jaramillo, F., & Locander, W. B. (2004). Market-driving organizations: a framework. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 5, 1-14.

Carson, D., Cromie, S., McGowan, P., & Hill, J. (1995). Marketing and entrepreneurship in SMEs: an innovative approach. London, UK: Prentice Hall.

Carson, D., & Grant, K. (1998). SME marketing competencies: A definition and some empirical evidence. In G.E. Hills, & M. Miles (Eds). Research at the marketing/ entrepreneurship interface, (pp.173-186). Chicago, IL: The University of Illinois at Chicago.

Christensen, C. M., Johnson, M. W., & Rigby, D. K. (2002). Foundations for growth: How to identify and build disruptive new businesses. MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(3), 22-31.

Clark, T. (1990). International marketing and national character: A review and proposal for an integrative theory. The Journal of Marketing, 54(4), 66-79.

Collinson, E. (2002). The marketing/entrepreneurship interface. Journal of Marketing Management, 3(4), 337-340.

Coviello, N. E., Brodie, R. J., & Munro, H. J. (2000). An investigation of marketing practice by firm size. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5), 523-545.

Covin, J. G. (1991). Entrepreneurial versus conservative firms: A comparison of strategies and performance. Journal of Management Studies, 28(5), 439-462.

Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75-87.

Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1991). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(1), 7-25.

Covin, J. G., Green, K. M., & Slevin, D. P. (2006). Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial orientation–sales growth rate relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 57-81.

Covin, J. G., & Wales, W. J. (2012). The measurement of entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(4), 677-702.

Dai, L., Maksimov, V., Gilbert, B. A., & Fernhaber, S. A. (2014). Entrepreneurial orientation and international scope: The differential roles of innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(4), 511-524.

Davis, D., Morris, M., & Allen, J. (1991). Perceived environmental turbulence and its effect on selected entrepreneurship, marketing, and organizational characteristics in industrial firms. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(1), 43-51.

Day, G. S., & Montgomery, D. B. (1999). Charting new directions for marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 3-13.

Deleersnyder, B. (2003). Marketing in turbulent times (Doctoral dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven).

Fiore, A. M., Niehm, L. S., Hurst, J. L., Son, J., & Sadachar, A. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing: Scale validation with small, independently-owned businesses. Journal of Marketing Development & Competitiveness, 7(4), 63-86.

Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. (1990). Corporate imagination and expeditionary marketing. Harvard Business Review, 69(4), 81-92.

Hills, G., & Hultman, C. (2006). Entrepreneurial marketing. In S. Lagrosen & G. Svensson (Eds.), Marketing: Broadening the Horizons (pp.220-234). Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur.

Hills, G., & LaForge, R. (1992). Research at the marketing interface to advance entrepreneurship theory, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(3), 33-59.

Hills, G., & Singh, R. (1998). Opportunity recognition: A survey of high performing and representative entrepreneurs. In G.E. Hills & M. Miles (Eds.), Research at the marketing /entrepreneurship interface (pp.249-268). Chicago, IL: The University of Illinois at Chicago.

Jones, R., & Rowley, J. (2009). Presentation of a generic EMICO framework for research exploration of entrepreneurial marketing in SMEs. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 11(1), 5-21.

Khandwalla, P. (1977). The Design of Organizations. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Kilenthong, P., Hills, G.E., & Hultman, C. M. (2015). An empirical investigation of entrepreneurial marketing dimensions. Journal of International Marketing Strategy, 3(1), 1-18.

Kilenthong, P., Hultman, C. M., & Hills, G.E. (2016). Entrepreneurial marketing behaviours: Impact of firm age, firm size, and firm's founder. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, forthcoming.

Knight, G. (2000). Entrepreneurship and marketing strategy: The SME under globalization. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2), 12-32.

Kocak, A. (2004). Developing and validating a scale for entrepreneurial marketing. Paper presented at University of Illinois at Chicago Research Symposium, France.

Kreiser, P. M., Marino, L. D., & Weaver, K. M. (2002). Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial orientation scale: A multi-country analysis. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(4), 71-95.

Kreiser, P. M., Marino, L. D., Kuratko, D. F., & Weaver, K. M. (2013). Disaggregating entrepreneurial orientation: the non-linear impact of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking on SME performance. Small Business Economics, 40(2), 273-291.

Kumar, N., Scheer, L., & Kotler, P. (2000). From market driven to market driving. European Management Journal, 18(2), 129-142.

Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-172.

McDaniel, S. W., & Kolari, J. W. (1987). Marketing strategy implications of the Miles and Snow strategic typology. The Journal of Marketing, 51(1), 19-30.

Menon, A., Bharadwaj, S. G., Adidam, P. T., & Edison, S. W. (1999). Antecedents and consequences of marketing strategy making: a model and a test. The Journal of Marketing, 63(2), 18-40.

Miles, M. P., & Darroh, J. (2006). Large firms, entrepreneurial marketing processes, and the cycle of competitive advantage. European Journal of Marketing, 40(5/6), 485-501.

Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science, 29(7), 770-791.

Miller, D. (2011). Miller (1983) revisited: A reflection on EO research and some suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(5), 873-894.

Mintzberg, H. (1973). Strategy-making in three modes. California Management Review, 16(2), 44-53.

Morris, M. H., & Paul, G. W. (1987). The relationship between entrepreneurship and marketing in established firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 2(3), 247-259.

Morris, M., Schindehutte, M., & LaForge, R. (2002). Entrepreneurial marketing: A construct for integrating emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(4), 1-19.

Mort, G. Weerawardena, S., J., & Liesch, P. (2012). Advancing entrepreneurial marketing: Evidence from born global firms. European Journal of Marketing, 46(3/4), 542-561.

Nakata, C., & Sivakumar, K. (1996). National culture and new product development: An integrative review. The Journal of Marketing, 60(1), 61-72.

Naman, J. L., & Slevin, D. P. (1993). Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: A model and empirical tests. Strategic Management Journal, 14(2), 137-153.

Qureshi, S., & Kratzer, J. (2011). An investigation of antecedents and outcomes of marketing capabilities in entrepreneurial firms: an empirical study of small technology-based firms in Germany. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 24(1), 49-66.

Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G. T., & Frese, M. (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: An assessment of past research and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 761-787.

Santos, F. M., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (2009). Constructing markets and shaping boundaries: Entrepreneurial power in nascent fields. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 643-671.

Sashittal, H., & Jassawalla, A. (2001). Marketing implementation in smaller organizations: Definition, framework, and propositional inventory. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(1), 50-69.

Schmid, J. (2012). Entrepreneurial marketing- Often described, rarely measured. Paper presented at the Academy of Marketing Conference, Southampton, UK.

Schwartz, R., R. Teach, & F. Tarpley (1993). The Marketing of High Tech Products: An Entrepreneur’s Perspective. In Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, pp. 50–61.

Shaw, E. (1999). Networks and their relevance to the entrepreneurial/marketing interface: A review of the evidence. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 24-40.

Siu, W., & Kirby, D. (1999). Personal connection network, marketing information solicitation and marketing performance: The case of Chinese owner managers. In G.E. Hills, W. Siu, & D. Malewicki (Eds.), Research at the marketing/ entrepreneurship interface (pp.176-191). Chicago, IL: The University of Illinois at Chicago.

Srinivasan, R., Rangaswamy, A., & Lilien, G. L. (2005). Turning adversity into advantage: does proactive marketing during a recession pay off? International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22(2), 109-125.

Stasch, S. (1999). Guerilla marketing in new venture marketing strategies. In G.E. Hills, W. Siu, & D. Malewicki (Eds.), Research at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface (pp.57-67). Chicago, IL: The University of Illinois at Chicago.

Stetz, P. E., Howell, R., Stewart, A., Blair, J. D., & Fottler, M. D. (2000). Multidimensionality of entrepreneurial firm-level processes: do the dimensions covary? Frontiers of entrepreneurship research. Babson College, MA.

Venkatraman, N. (1989). The concept of fit in strategy research: Toward verbal and statistical correspondence. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 423-444.

Zahra, S. A. (1996). Technology strategy and new venture performance: a study of corporate-sponsored and independent biotechnology ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(4), 289-321.


  • There are currently no refbacks.