Export Entry in Small Companies: Effecs of Timing on Strategy and Performance

  • Candida G. Brush Boston University


New and small companies are increasingly active in exporting, but little is known about relationships between timing of this decision and international strategy. or performance. This exploratory study examines effects of early and late export entry on international strategy and performance in a sample of 134 exporting U S. manufacturers. Results show different patterns of international strategy are associated with early versus late export entry, and that depending on timing of this entry, certain strategies result in improved performance.


Aaby, N,E, & Slater, S.F. ( 1989) Management influences on export performance: a review of empirical literature, International Marketing Review. (6)4: 7-26
Aharoni, Y. (1966) The Foreign Investment Decision Process. Boston: Harvard Business School
Baird, I., Lyles, M.A., & Orris, J.B. (1994) The choice of international strategies by small businesses, Journal a/ Small Business Management. (32)1 : 48-59
Barrett, A. (1995) It's a small business world. Business Week. (April 1 7): 96-1 02
Bijmolt, T. & Zwart ( 1 994) The impact of internal factors on the export success of Dutch small-medium sized firms, Journal a/ Small Business Management. (32)2: 69-83
Brush, C. ( 1992) Factors Motivating Small Firms to Internationalize: The Effect of Firm Age. unpublished doctoral dissertation. Boston University
Buck ley, P.J. (1989) Foreign market servicing strategies and competitiveness: a theoretical framework in Neghandi, A.R. & Savara, A. (eds.) lnternatioml Strategic management, Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath & Co. 69-88
Carter, N., Stearns, T., Reynolds, B., & Miller, B. (1994) New Venture Strategies: Theory Development with an Empirical Base. Strategic Management Journal. 15: 21 -41
Cavusgil , S.T. (1984) Differences among exporting firms based on their degree of internationalization. Journal of Business Research. (12)2: 1 95-208
Chaganti, R., Chaganti, R., & Malone, S. ( 1991) High Performance Management Strategies for Entrepreneurial Companies. New York: Quorum Books
Churchi 11, N.C. & Lewis, V. (1983) The five stages of small busi ness growth, Harvard Business Review. (61 )3: 30-50
Covin, J. & Covin, T. (1989) Competitive aggressiveness, environmental context and small firm performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. ( 14)4: 35-50
Covin, J. & Slevin, D. (1990) New venture strategic posture, structure and performance: an industry life cycle analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, (5)2: 1 23-1 35
Day, D. (1993) Research linkages between entrepreneurship and strategic management or general management. in Sexton, D. & Kasarda, J. (eds.) The State of the Art of Entrepreneurship. Boston, MA: PWS Kent 1 17-163
Dominguez, L. & Sequiera, C. (1993) Determinants of LDC exporters performance: a cross national study. Journal of International Business Studies.( 23) I : 24-30
Eggers, J., Leahy, K. & Churchill, N. (1994) Stages of small business growth revisited: insights into growth path and leadership management skills in low and high growth companies. presented at the Babson Entrepreneurship Research Conference, Babson College, Wellesley, MA
Eisenhardt, K. (1990) Speed and strategic choice: how managers accelerate decision-making. California Management Review. (32)3: 39-54
Erami lli, M.K. & Rao, C.P. ( 1994) Choice of foreign market entry mode by service firms: the role of market knowledge. Management International Review.(30)2: 235-1 50
Erdos, P.L. (1970) Professional Mail Surveys. N.Y.: McGraw Hill
Feeser, H.R. & Willard, G.E. ( 1990) Foundi ng strategy and performance:a comparison of high and low growth h igh tech firms. Strategic Management Journal. ( 1 1 ): 87-98
Frank, H., Plasch ka, G., & Roessl, D. (1989) Planni ng behavior of successful and non­ successful founders of new ventures. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. (1)1: 191 -20
Fredrickson, C., Klofsten, M, Olofsson, C. & Wah l bin, C. ( 1 989) Growth, performance and financial structure of new technology-based fi rms. in Brockhaus, R., Sr., Churchill, N.C., Katz, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A., Vesper, K. A., & Wetzel, W.E., Jr. (eds.) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Proceedings of the Babson Conference on Entrepreneurship. Wellesley, MA: Babson College: 1 89-199
Grenier, L.E. ( 1 972) Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. Harvard Business Review 1 50:4, 37-46
Holziger, A.G. ( 1 990) Reach new markets. Nation's Business. Dec.: 1 8-27
Johanson J. & Vahlne, J.E. ( 1 977) The internationalization process of the firm--a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitment. Journal of International Business Studies. (8) I:23-32
Kazanjian, R.K. & Drazin, R. ( 1 990) A stage contingent model of size and growth for technologically based ventures. Journal of Business Venturing. (5)3: 1371 50
Kirplani, V.H. & Macintosh, N.B. (1980) Internal marketing effectiveness of technology- oriented small fi rms. Journal of International Business Studies. (1 1)Winter: 81-90.
Maynard, R. (1994) A good time to export. Nation',, Business. (May): 22-32 Maynard, R. (1 995) Trade Tides Rise Across the Pacific. (Nov.): 52-54
McDougall, P. & Robinson, R. (1987) New venture strategies: an empirical identification of eight distinct strategic orientations. Academy of Management Proceedings: Best Papers. i n Hoy, F. (ed.). 73-77
McDougal l, P. ( 1 989) International versus domestic entrepreneurship: new venture strategic behavior and i ndustry struct ure. Journal of Business Venturing. (4): 387-399
McDougall, P., Shane, S. & Oviatt, B. ( 1 994) Explaining the formation of international new ventures: the limits of theories from international business research. Journal of Business Venturing. (9)6: 469-488
Miesen bock, K.J. (1988) Smal l businesses and export ing: a l iterat ure review. International Small Business Journal.(J an-M ar): 42-63
Mel i n, L. ( 1 992) l nternational izationas a strategy process.Strategic ManagementJournal.( 1 3) Winter- Special Issue: 99-1 1 8
Morrison, A.J. & Roth, K. ( 1989) I nternational Business Level Strategy: The Development of a Hol isti c Model. in Neghand i, A.R. & Savara, A. (eds.) International Strategic Management, Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath & Co. 29-52
Namiki, N. (1988) Export strategy for small business.Journal of Small Business Management. (26)2:33-37
Norusis, M.J. (1987) The SPSS Guide to Data Analysis for SPSSX. Chicago, I LL: SPSS, I nc.
Nunnally, J.C. ( 1 970) Introduction to Psychological Measurement. New York: McGraw Hill Oviatt, B. & McDougall, P. (1994) Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies (25) I:45-63
Ovian, B., McDougal l, P. & Di nterman ( 1993) Global start-u ps: forces driving their growth and patterns of success. Presented at the Babson Entrepreneurship Research Conference, May
Piercy, N. ( 1 981) Company i nternational ization: active and reactive exporting. European Journal of Marketing. ( 1 5)3: 26-40
Robinson, R. & Pearce, J. (1984) Research thrusts in small firm strategic planning. Academy of Management Review. (9): 128-1 37
Romanelli, E. (1989) Environments and strategies of organization start-u p: effects on early survival. Administrative Science Quarterly. (34)3: 369-387
Stevenson, H.H. & Gumpert, D.E. ( 1985) The heart of entrepreneurship. Harvard Business Review. (Mar-Apr): 85-94
Small Business in the American Economy (1988) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office
Ursic, M. & Czinkota, M. ( 1984) An experience curve explanation for export expansion.
Journal of Business Research,(! 12)2: 1 59-168
Wall Street Journal. Three small businesses profit by taking on the world. (Oct. 1 3, 1990): A-2 Welch, L.S. & Loustarinen,R. ( 1 988) Internationalization: evolution of a concept. Journal of General Management.( 14)2: 34-55
How to Cite
BRUSH, Candida G.. Export Entry in Small Companies: Effecs of Timing on Strategy and Performance. Journal of Small Business Strategy, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 53-68, aug. 1996. ISSN 2380-1751. Available at: <http://libjournals.mtsu.edu/index.php/jsbs/article/view/349>. Date accessed: 22 mar. 2018.