A Cross-National Investigation of First-Generation, Second-Generation, and Third-Generation Family Businesses: A Four Country Anova Comparison

Matthew C. Sonfield, Robert N. Lussier, Sanj Pfeifer, S. Manikutty, Loic Maherault, Louis Verdier

Abstract


This study compared first, second, and third-generation family businesses in the United States, Croatia, France, and India - countries with significant differences in cultures, economies, levels of entrepreneurial activity, and family business demographics. Contrary to much of the existing literature, the results indicate that owner-managers of all three generational categories of family businesses, in all four countries, generally shared the same managerial characteristics and practices. Implications for theory development and further research are presented.

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