Gender Equity in Diverse Curriculum Content: Views from Primary Teachers in Tanzania
While rhetoric concerning gender equity is beginning to emerge in many African nations, a dearth of research examines the status of gender equity in actual Sub-Saharan African classrooms. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher views of gender equity pertaining to primary grade boys and girls. Data was collected using the Teacher Attitudes Survey (TAS) (Anderson, 2005). This instrument was administered to 137 randomly selected Tanzanian primary grade teachers. Findings suggest significant differences exist in what teachers perceive to be important for boys and girls to learn when the curriculum is broken down by subject. Discussion of findings provides suggestions for future international comparative research on gender equity in African classrooms.
Anderson, S. (2005). Girls’ Education and the “Pedagogy of Difference” A Study of Teacher Attitudes and Gender Equitable Pedagogy in Benin. (doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 2005). Retrieved October 10, 2010: retrieved from ERIC database.
Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA). (2006). More and Better Education. ADEA Newsletter. 18 (1) 1-16.
Bakuza, R. F. (2014). Differences between stated and implemented policies in early childhood education leadership: A Case Study of Tanzania. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University at Buffalo. USA.
Biraimah, K. (1989). The process and outcomes of gender bias in elementary schools: A Nigerian case. Journal of Negro Education, 58 (1), 50-67.
Blackmore, J. (1998). The politics of gender educational change: Managing gender or changing gender relations. In A. Hargreaves, A.
Lieberman, M. Fullan, and David Hopkins (Eds.), International Handbook of Educational Change (p. 460-481). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Davison, J. & Kanyuka. M. (1992). Girls’ participation in basic education in Southern Malawi. Comparative Education Review, 36, 446-466.
Dembele, M. & Miaro-II, B. (2003). Pedagogical Renewal and Teacher Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Thematic Synthesis, A working document of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa., retrieved from, http://www.adeanet.org/adeaPortal/adea/biennial2003/papers/4A_synthesemartial_e_final.pdf.
Deutsch, F. M. (2007). Undoing Gender. Gender and Society, 21(1), 106-127.
Donnelly, J. (2015). Towards gender equality through equity in community-level evaluation. Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 15(1), 15.
Essary, J. (2012, June). Dissertation: Gender Equity in Primary Teachers’ Pedagogical Decision Making in Tanzania. ProQuest/UMI
Ethell, R. & McMeniman, M. (2002). A critical first step in learning to teach: Confronting the power and tenacity of student teachers’ beliefs and preconceptions. In C. Sugrue and C. Day (Eds.), Developing teachers and teaching practice: International research perspectives (pp.216-234). London: Routledge-Falmer.
Floro, M. & Wolf, J. (1990). The economic and social impacts of girls’ primary education developing countries. Advancing Basic Education and Literacy Project. US Agency for International Development.
Frawley, T. (2005). Gender bias in the classroom: current controversies and implications for teachers. Childhood Education, 81.
Galaty, J.G. (1986, September). Cattle, Classification and Education: Aspects of Maasai Practical Cognition. Paper presented in the Session on the Semantics of Animal Symbolism at the World Archeological Congress, Southampton, England.
Jejeebhoy, S. J. (1995). Women’s education, autonomy, and reproductive behavior: Experiences from developing countries. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Lloyd, C.B, Mensch, B.S., & Clark, W.H. (2000). The effects of primary school quality on school dropout among Kenyan girls and boys. Comparative Education Review, 44(2), 113-147.
Marlow-Ferguson, R. (2002). Tanzania. (2nd ed). Farmington Hills: World Education Encyclopedia.
Meena, R. (1994). Gender issues in the educational process in Tanzania,” background paper prepared for the Social Sector Review, The World Bank Resident Mission, Dar es Salaam.
Oldekop, J.A., Fontana, L. B., Grugel, J., Roughton, N., Adu-Ampong, E.A., Bird, G.K., & Agbarakwe, E. (2016). 100 key research questions for the post-2015 development agenda. Development Policy Review, 34(1), 55-82.
Robeyns, I. (2005). The Capability Approach: A Theoretical Survey. Journal of Human Development. 6(1), 93-114.
Sifuna, D. (2007). The Challenge of Increasing Access and Improving Quality: An analysis of Universal primary education interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970’s. International Review of Education, 53, 687-699.
Sommer, M. (2010). The changing nature of girlhood in Tanzania: Global Imagery and Globalization. Girlhood Studies, 3(1), 116-136.
Spodek, B., & Saracho, O. N. (2014). Handbook of research on the education of young children. Routledge.
Stambach, A. (2000). Lessons from Kilimanjaro: Schooling, community, and gender in East Africa. New York: Routledge.
Subrahmanian, R. (2005). Gender equality in education: Definitions and measurements. International Journal of Educational Development, 25, 395-407.
Tandika, P. (2015). Stakeholders’ Construction on the Quality of Pre-primary Education in Tanzania. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 3(4), 24-35.
Tanzanian Government Minestry of Eduational Statistics, (2007). Dropout by Reason in Secondary Schools 2003-2007, Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://www.moe.go.tz/statistics.html.
Tanzanian Ministry of Education. (2007). Education and Training Sector Development Programme (ESDP) 2007-20011. Dar es Salaam: TME.
Tao, S. (2010). Applying the capability approach to school improvement interventions in Tanzania. EdQual Working Paper. 22. Institute of Education, University of London, UK.
United Nations Development Fund for Women (2005). Partnerships for Gender Equality: The Role of Multilateral and Bilateral Agencies in Africa. New York, NY.
United Nations Development Programme-Tanzania (2010). Tanzania makes moderate progress in human development. New York, NY.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2005). ERA global monitoring report: The quality imperative. Paris: Author.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2010). Reaching the Marginalized: EFA Global Monitoring Report. Paris, France: UNESCO & Oxford University Press.
UNICEF. (2008). The state of the World’s Children. New York, UNICEF.
UNICEF Unite for Children- United Republic of Tanzania, (2008). Statistics, Retrieved December 1, 2010, from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/tanzania_statistics.html#67.
United Nations Population Division (2015). http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Country-Profiles/
United Republic of Tanzania (2013). 2012 Population and Housing Census. Population Distribution by administratve areas, National Bureau of Statistics, Dar-es-Salaam.
Vygotsky, Lev S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weaver-Hightower, Marcus. (2003). The “boy turn” in research on gender and education. Review of Educational Research, 73(4), 471-498.
Zachrisson, H. D., & Dearing, E. (2015). Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway. Child development, 86(2), 425-440.
Zhang, Y. (2006). Urban-rural literacy gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa: The roles of socioeconomic status and school quality. Comparative Education Review, 50(4), 581-602.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to use and distribute the work internally at the author's place of employment and have the right to make presentation of the material.
- International Journal of the Whole Child is freely published at no cost to its authors or readers.